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FOR THE PEOPLE 

FOR EDVCATION 

FOR SCIENCE 






LIBRARY 

OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF 

NATURAL HISTORY 





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JOURNAL 



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OE THE 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL. 



PAET II. ExTEA NlJMBEE. AUGUST, 1875. 



■/ / 



CATALOGUE OF 



'."'AA 



MAMMALS AND BIRDS 



OF BURMA. 



BY THE LATE 

E. BLTTH, 

C.M.Z.S. J HON. M.B.O.TJ. ; HON. M. ASIAT. SOC. BENGAL ; CORR. M. ROY. ACADEMY 

OP TURIN, 01? ROY. NORWEGIAN, AND OF BATAVIAN SOCIETY OE SCIENCES ; 

CORR. M. ACAD. NAT. SCIENCES OE PHILADELPHIA, AND NAT. 

HIST. SOC. OE THE MOSELLE DEPARTMENT. 



"WITH A MEMOIE, AND PORTBAIT OE THE AUTHOR. 



HERTFORD : 

PRINTED BY STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS. 
1875. 





HEETFOUB : 

FEINTED BY STEPHEN AUSTIN AND SONS. 



INTEODUCTION. 



The Catalogues which follow oecnpied the late Mr. Blyth during the 
last three years of his life. Sir A. Phayre, K.C.S.L, now Governor of 
Mauritius, had requested him to undertake a sketch of the Natural 
History of Burma, which should form a chapter in a work on that 
country then under preparation. The MS. when obtained from Miss 
Blyth, after her brother's death, proved to constitute a more elaborate paper 
than Sir Arthur's purpose required. Blyth, as was his wont, had gone into 
the subject con amore, and had poured out all he knew of the Mammal and 
Avi-fauna of Burma. An Introductory Note, apparently not quite com- 
pleted, accompanied the Catalogues, and reserving this as sufficient probably 
for his object, Sir Arthur handed over the rest of the MS. to me, suggesting 
that the pages of this Journal would h& the most appropriate place for such 
a paper. 

This suggestion was one in which I cordially concurred; but the late Dr. 
Stoliczka, the able editor of Part II. of the Journal, was far away in Kashgar, 
and Dr. Anderson, of the Indian Museum, was in England. There might be a 
difficulty, in their absence, in passing this roughly written MS. through 
the press in Calcutta. Here, on the contrary, the most competent editorial 
aid offered ; and having received the kindest assurances from Lord "Walden, 
Dr. Anderson, and Dr. Dobson, I addressed the President of the Society, 
and proposed that the Catalogues should be published in London. This 
proposal was at once assented to, with a due expression of thanks on the 
part of the Council of the Society, both to Sir A. Phayre and to the gentle- 
men just named, whose respective shares in this publication will be explained 
in the sequel. 

More than one obituary notice of Blyth and his scientific labours, by 
competent and kindly pens, has already appeared in the columns of those 
Journals to which he had been in the habit of contributing. This seems 



IV 



Introduction. 



a fitting place for collecting in a brief memoir such particulars as are 
obtainable of his early life, and such as I can myself supply of his long 
career in our Society's service. My personal acquaintance with him com- 
menced on my return to India from furlough in 1848. He had then been 
Curator of our Museum for seven years, and my official connexion with 
the Society, combined with a taste for his pursuits, brought me into frequent 
and close relations with him. Of the incidents of his pre-Indian life some 
knowledge has been obtained from his sister, who has kindly given me 
access to such of his letters as are in her possession. 

The carbon print which accompanies this memoir has been prepared by 
the Autotype Company from a photograph taken of Blyth when he visited 
Dublin some ten years ago. It has been kindly contributed to me by Miss 
Blyth and her relative Mr. E. Loder, of High Beeches, Crawley, Sussex. 

Edward Blyth was born in London on the 23rd December, 1810. His 
father was of a Norfolk family, and from him the son appears to have inherited 
both his taste for nature and the retentive memory for which he was so re- 
markable. Blyth's father died in 1820, leaving four children, whose care 
and education now devolved on the widow, a Hampshire lady, who at once 
sent Edward, the eldest boy, to Dr. EennelPs school at Wimbledon. Here 
the boy seems to have made unusual progress in his books, but the school 
reports describe him as of truant habits, and as being frequently found in 
the woods. He left school in 1825, and his mother seems at first to have 
intended him for an University career, and ultimately for the Church, but 
at Dr. EennelPs suggestion she sent her son to London to study chemistry 
under Mr. Keating, of St. Paul's Churchyard. He did not, however, long 
persevere in this study, being dissatisfied with his instructor's mode of 
teaching. His enthusiasm for Natural History pursuits disinclined him 
for any ordinary employment, and on coming of age he embarked the little 
means he had in a druggist's business at Tooting. To this he seems to have 
given little personal attention. The management of the business was left to 
another, while Blyth devoted all his time to the study which engrossed his 
thoughts. " Never, 5 ' says his sister, "was any youth more industrious; 
up at three or four in the morning, reading, making notes, sketching bones, 
colouring maps, stuffing birds by the hundred, collecting butterflies, and 
beetles — teaching himself German sufficiently to translate it readily, singing 
always merrily at intervals." He took a room in Pall Mall, to have readier 
access to books, and passed much of his time in the British Museum, in 
which, or in some kindred institution, he tried hard to find employment. 

Naturally the Tooting business did not thrive under such fitful manage- 



Hk 



Introduction. v 

ment. Blyth soon found himself in serious difficulties ; such literary work 
as offered itself in his own special line of study supplied him with but 
precarious means. In the Introduction to his edition of "White's ' Selborne/ 
which bears date from Lower Tooting, 1836, he alludes to the anxieties 
which then surrounded him, though "his mind/' he adds, " cleaves to its 
favourite pursuit in defiance of many obstacles and interruptions, and eagerly 
avails itself of every occasion to contribute a mite to the stock of general 
information." Young as he was, Blyth had at this time earned for himself 
a reputation as a diligent and accurate field observer, and he corresponded 
with many of the leading naturalists of the day. He seems to have been a 
contributor to both Loudon and Charlesworth's series of the Magazine of 
Natural History from 1833 till his departure for India, and in one of his 
papers of the volume for 1838 he proposed a new arrangement of Insessorial 
birds. Bennie enlisted him as a writer in the "Eield Naturalist," and he 
was associated with Mudie, Johnston, and Westwood, in an illustrated trans- 
lation of Cuvier, which was published by Orr and Co. in 1840. Blyth 
undertook the Mammals, Birds, and Keptiles in this work, adding much 
original matter of his own, which is inclosed within brackets. A new and 
enlarged edition of the work appeared in 1854, with important additions to 
the Molluscs and Fishes by Dr. Carpenter. 

The Proceedings of the Zoological Society from 1837 to 1840 contain 
a few papers read by Blyth at their meetings. One of these, on the Osteology 
of the Great Auk, observes on the distinctive characters of Auks and 
Penguins. In another he draws attention to peculiarities in the structure 
of the feet of the Trogons. But the most important of these con- 
tributions was his Monograph of the genus " Ovis," read in 1840.* He 
here describes fifteen species of Sheep, including the then newly discovered 
0. poll, from Pamir. At the same meeting he exhibited drawings and 
specimens of the Yak, Kashmir Stag, Markhur, Himalayan Ibex, and other 
Indian ruminants, his remarks on which show the attention which he had 
already begun to give to the Zoology of India. 

Just at this time our Society had obtained from the Court of Directors 
a grant for a paid Curator of its Museum, which had grown into a collec- 
tion beyond what was manageable by the honorary office-bearers who had 



* Proc. Zool. Soc, July 28. This was an "Amended List" of species, of which he had 
enumerated nine in a summary Monograph in the previous February. This paper was 
reprinted in Taylor's Mag. of Nat. Hist, in 1841. and again with additional matter in 
J.B.A.S. vol. x. pt. 2, p. 858. 



VI 



Introduction. 



hitherto looked after it. The labours of Hodgson, Cantor, M'Clelland, and 
others, had filled it with valuable Zoological specimens, which with important 
fossil and other contributions were falling into great disorder. Prof. H. H. 
Wilson, then our honorary agent in London, was asked to select a 
competent man to undertake the general charge of the Museum, and the 
appointment was oifered to and accepted by Blyth, then in weak health, and 
professionally advised to seek a warmer climate. Provided with passage 
and outfit by the Court of Directors, the latter arrived in Calcutta in 
September, 1841. His letter to Mr. H. Torrens, published in our Society's 
Proceedings for that month (vide Journ. Vol. X. Pt. 2, p. 756), expresses the 
diffidence with which he entered on the charge of the Mineral Department of 
the Museum ; but of this duty he was largely relieved in the following year 
on the appointment of Mr. Piddington to all the Departments of Economic 
Geology. He still retained the custody of the Palaeontological specimens. 

One of the duties impressed on him by our then President, Sir E. Ryan, 
was that of furnishing monthly reports at the Society's meetings ; and in 
October, 1841, he accordingly submitted the first of that long series of 
useful reports which appear in our Proceedings with scarcely any inter- 
mission for the next twenty years. Each of the monthly issues of this 
Journal for the remainder of 1841 contains a paper by Blyth. In the first 
of these, ' A general review of the species of True Stag,' etc., he committed 
himself to an opinion, shared with him by Ogilby, regarding Hodgson's 
Cervus affinis, which, as Jerdon has pointed out (Mamm. p. 252), he did not 
recant till 1861, 

Many of Blyth's reports fill from fifteen to twenty pages, and his 
remarks on the various contributions which reached him were just what were 
wanted by the field observers who supplied them. The active correspondence 
which he set on foot with these and with sportsmen, all more or less 
naturalists, throughout India, encouraged their useful pursuits, and brought 
him a large accession of specimens. He received in July, 1846, the 
thanks of the monthly meeting of our Society for his exertions " in 
opening out new channels of scientific intercourse." * He had already found 
it necessary to apply for assistance in his Museum duties, but the Society 
had not the means of supplementing the Government grant beyond the small 
allowance which they gave him for house rent. Had Blyth been less devoted 
to the special service in which he had engaged, there were not wanting to 
him opportunities of finding far more remunerative employment in other 



* J.B.A.S. xy. p. 51. 



Introduction. 



vn 



quarters. The Dutch authorities in Java seem to have about this time made 
him a very tempting offer. 

The Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1841 and 1842 contain two 
letters from Blyth, of which one was written on the voyage out to India,* 
and the other shortly after his arrival, f The latter contained remarks on 
various species of birds found in India and Europe. Nothing from his pen 
appears in the Calcutta Journal of Natural History, of which the publication 
had just commenced when he reached India, and which was brought to a 
close in 1847. He found time, however, to send home several papers for 
the Annals of Natural History in 1844-48, as will be seen in the List 
appended to this Memoir, in which I have endeavoured to collect the 
titles of all his published writings. 

The unpleasant episode in regard to the publication of the Burnes 
Zoological drawings with Dr. Lord's notes had occurred before I joined the 
Society. The materials, which consisted of certain wretched figures by 
a native artist, and some descriptions of already well-known species, the 
Afghanistan localities of which were alone new, had been made over to us by 
the Government before Blyth became our Curator. The lithographer's death 
had brought the work to a stand, and when inquiry was made in 1844, the 
notes which weie to furnish the letterpress were not forthcoming. Blyth' s 
explanation of his share in their disappearance will be found in our Pro- 
ceedings of October, 18444 T^ 8 was followed by a controversy with Mr. 
Torrens, § then our Secretary ; and the financial embarrassments of the 
Society soon afterwards necessitated the abandonment of the publication. Of 
the fourteen coloured copies of the completed plates, I possess one, and I quite 
agree with Blyth that their issue would have brought ridicule on the Society. 

The heavy outlay incurred on this undertaking, and on the publication 
of Cantor's Chusan drawings, was unfortunately the cause, not only of the 
embarrassments just noticed, but of a temporary estrangement between the 
Philological and Physical classes of our members. Funds which had been 
assigned by the Government for furthering Oriental literature had no doubt 
been appropriated to other objects. Blyth came in for a share of this 
discontent on the part of the Orientalists, and some Naturalists also com- 
plained that he was enriching the Mammal and Bird departments of the 
Museum at the expense of those of the shells, fossils, and insects. The 
want, too, of a Catalogue of the collections had been long felt, and the 



* P.Z.S. 1841, p. 63. 

% J.B.A.S. xiii. pt. 2, p. 51. 



f idem. 1842, p. 93. 

§ idem. xiv. pt. 2, p. cvi. 



V1I1 



Introduction. 



I 



I 

w ■ 

r 



Curator had been repeatedly urged to supply it. The Council refers to his 
delay in performing this duty in their Beport* of 1848, while commend- 
ing " his regularity of attendance and remarkable industry." His appli- 
cation for increased pay and a retiring pension was referred to the Society 
at large with the following guarded remarks: — "It must be admitted that 
for any scientific man capable of discharging the duties on which Mr. Blyth is 
employed, and of performing them with activity and zeal, for the advancement 
of science, etc., the [monthly] salary of 250 rupees is a very inadequate com- 
pensation. But the Council cannot but regard the present as an inauspicious 
period to address the Honourable Court in furtherance of any pecuniary 
claim. The diversion of the Oriental grant to so large an amount as has but 
lately been brought to notice, cannot be regarded with indifference by them, 
nor can it have disposed them to entertain with much favour any fresh 
demand on their munificence preferred by the Society." The application was 
then referred for report to the Natural History Section, and notwithstanding 
the stout struggle made on his behalf in the Section, their report was 
unfavourable to Blyth' s claims, which were finally negatived at the Julyf 
meeting in 1848. 

In the following year Blyth published his Catalogue of Birds, which had 
in fact long been ready for issue in a form which would have satisfied the 
Council. It had been constantly kept back for the Appendices, Addenda, 
and "Further Addenda," which disfigure the volume, and seriously detract 
from its value as a work of reference. This habitual reluctance of his to 
part with his compositions till he had embodied in them his latest gained in- 
formation is conspicuous throughout his contributions, and it is in fact 
partly due to this habit that these Burman Catalogues form a posthumous 
publication. 

Blyth availed himself of every opportunity which offered of escape from 
his closet studies to resume his early habits of field observation. Frequent 
mention will be found in his reports of the little excursions into the country 
which he thus made, and of the practical results obtained from them. The 
geniality of his disposition and the large store of general information at his 
command insured him a warm welcome in all quarters. One of his favourite 
resorts was Khulna, on the edge of the Jessore Sunderbuns, where the indigo 
factory of an intelligent and untiring observer J offered him a favourable 
station for field pursuits. 

* J.B.A.S. xvii. pt. 1, p. 10. f J.B.A.S. svii. pt. 2, p. 122. 

X Our common friend Robert Frith, whose name is of frequent occurrence in the 
Curator's reports. 



Introduction. 



IX 



Several contributions from Blyth on his special subject will be found in 
the pages of the different sporting Journals which have appeared in Calcutta. 
He was on the regular staff of the 'Indian Field.' In the ' India Sporting 
Beview' he published a sketch of 'The Osteology of the Elephant/ and a 
series of papers on 'The Inline Animals of India/ For the 'Calcutta 
Beview' he wrote an article on the 'Birds of India/ It gives the re- 
sults of his latest experience on the subject of the communication made in 
1842 to the Zoological Society, which has been noticed above, and shows 
that of 353 species of birds admitted by Yarrell into the English avifauna, 
no less than 140 are found in India. 

In 1854 Blyth was married to Mrs. Hodges, a young widow whom he 
had known as Miss Sutton, and who had lately come out to join some rela- 
tives in India. This step on his part necessarily aggravated the embarrass- 
ments entailed on him by his inadequate income, and on completing his four- 
teenth year of service in 1855, he memorialized the Court of Directors for an 
increased salary and for a pension "after a certain number of years' service." 
In the second paragraph of his memorial he observes, "that however 
desirous the Asiatic Society might be of augmenting your memorialist's 
personal allowances, the ever-increasing demands on its income, consequent 
on the extension of its collections among other causes, altogether disables it 
from so doing." On this memorial being submitted to the meeting* of May, 
1856, it was agreed to forward the document to Government, "with the 
expression of the high sense entertained by the Society of the value of 
Mr. Blyth's labours in the Department of Natural History, and of its 
hope that the memorial may be favourably considered by the Honourable 
Court." 

The extract just given will show, in Blyth's own words, that he had no 
complaints to make of our Society's treatment of him. Mr. A. Hume, who 
seems to have first joined our Society in 1870, has gone somewhat out of his 
way in his 'Rough Notes 'f to do justice to Blyth's merits as Curator, at 
the expense of older members. The language used is in Mr. Hume's charac- 
teristic style, and is as offensive as the charge brought against the Society 
is unjust. The same charge is implied in the use of the words "neglect 
and harshness" in the "In Memoriam " with which vol. ii. of ' Stray 
Feathers' opens, and which, with this exception, describes with much 
truth and feeling the life-long struggle in India, as at home, which Blyth's 

* J. B. A. S. xxv. 237. 

f See note to ' My Scrap Book or Rough Notes on Indian Oology and Ornithology, ' 
No. l,p. 181. 



Introduction. 



i 



scientific ardour supported him in maintaining against the most depressing 
obstacles. 

That nothing came of this memorial is due probably in some measure to 
the movement which commenced in 1857 for transferring our collections to 
an Imperial Museum, but mainly to the great convulsion which shook our 
empire in that year. I find no record in our Proceedings of any reply 
having been made to our recommendation, and the negociations for the 
foundation of the new museum were not resumed for some three years. 

Blyth made a short tour in the K"W. Provinces in July, 1856. He 
spent some sis weeks in Lucknow, Cawnpore, Allahabad, and Benares. Oude 
had just been annexed, and the sale of the Royal Menagerie at Lucknow 
had been determined on. The tigers were the finest caged specimens in the 
world, and to one who understood their value in the European market, the 
inducement to buy and ship the animals was irresistible. A German friend 
joined in the speculation, and found the necessary funds. Blyth was to do 
the rest, and as no competitors offered, he bought the bulk of the collection 
for a trifle. Eighteen magnificent tigers were sold at 20 rupees (£2) a head ! 
Some casualties occurred on the passage down the river; but his collection, 
when exhibited in Calcutta, contained sixteen tigers, one leopard, one 
bear, two cheetas, three caracals, two rhinoceroses, and a giraffe, which carried 
a saddle and was daily ridden. Difiiculties unfortunately occurred in finding 
ships for the transport of the animals, and their detention in Calcutta caused 
further casualties and heavy charges, which his partner would not face. 
The speculation collapsed, but one of the tigers which reached England 
realized £140. 

In December, 1857, Blyth had the misfortune to lose his wife. His 
short married life had been of the happiest, and the blow fell heavily on 
him. His letters to his sister for the early months of 1858 are painful to 
read. The shock proved too much for him, and brought on a serious attack 
of illness ; it threatened paralysis of the heart, and he seems to have been 
subject to partial returns of similar attacks for the rest of his life. His 
health too suffered much from the isolation imposed on him by his straitened 
means, and from want of proper exercise. Some distraction for his thoughts 
was luckily afforded at this time by the opening up of a new fauna in the 
Andaman Islands, which Dr. Mouatt had been sent to report on before their 
occupation as a penal settlement. To this Eeport Blyth contributed an in- 
teresting chapter on the Zoology of the Islands, so far as it was then known. 
The China expedition of 1860 was considered both at home and in India 
a good opportunity for obtaining information regarding the natural history of 



Introduction. 



XI 



North China. Blyth' s name was put forward as that of a naturalist readily 
available and eminently qualified for the post of naturalist to the expedition. 
Replying to Lord Canning's objections that scientific observations in a hostile 
country would have to be carried on at much personal risk, our Council,* while 
urging the importance of the mission in a scientific point of view, stated on 
Blyth' s behalf that " he was quite willing to encounter the danger, whatever 
it might be." The application, however, failed: no naturalist was appointed. 
This result was to be regretted, as it affected Blyth personally, for his health 
was failing, and the sea-voyage, with the stimulus afforded by so interesting 
a mission, would have been most beneficial to him, and would probably have 
averted the utter breakdown which was now at hand. It is doubtful whether 
he was equal to the more laborious task which he offered to undertake in the 
following year, when the scientific expedition into Chinese Tartary was pro- 
jected by the Government. 

Blyth was a staunch adherent of Darwin's views, and an opportunity of 
thus declaring himself offered at our November meeting in 1860, when Mr. 
H. Blanford read his paper on the well-known work of Dr. Broun on the 
laws of development of organized beings. The value attached by Darwin to 
Blyth's observations is shown by the frequent reference made to them, more 
especially in his ' Animals and Plants under Domestication.' His first cita- 
tion of Blyth in the latter work describes him as an " excellent authority," 
and the many quotations that follow in these interesting volumes show how 
carefully he read and noted all that fell from Blyth, even in his contributions 
to sporting journals. 

In 1861 Blyth's health fairly gave way, and in July of that year a second 
memorial was submitted to Government! with a view to obtaining a recon- 
sideration by the Secretary of State for India of his claims to a pension. 
Lord Elgin, the new Viceroy, took up the subject warmly, and pressed it on 
the attention of the Home authorities as a special case :{ "the case," as he 
observed, "of a man of science who had devoted himself for a very small 
salary to duties in connexion with the Asiatic Society, a body aided by and 
closely identified with the Government of India, from which the public have 
derived great advantage." After describing Blyth as "the creator of the 
Natural History Museum, which has hitherto supplied the place of a public 
museum in the Metropolis of India, and which will probably soon be made 
over to Government as part of a national museum," and referring to the 



J. B. A. S. xxix. p. 82. f J. B. A. S. xxxL 6Q a 

X Idem. xxxi. 430. 



Xll 



Introduction. 



J 



importance of Blyth's labours in zoology in maintaining and extending the 
character and standing of our Society, this dispatch concludes thus : " His 
Excellency in Council considers, therefore, that if under such circumstances 
Mr. Blyth should, after twenty years' service, be compelled to retire from ill 
health, brought on very much by his exertions in pursuit of science, it would 
not be creditable to the Government that he should be allowed to leave with- 
out any retiring pension.' ' 

Meanwhile, Blyth was only enabled to remain at his post by the facilities 
which the Council afforded him of making short successive visits to Burma. 
He was for some five months in that province, from which, and more espe- 
cially from the Yonzalin River, he communicated several interesting letters. 
His camp life there agreed with him, and he had kind friends like Phayre, 
Fytche, and Tickell to associate with and take care of him. His return to 
Calcutta was always attended by a relapse, and the hot season of 1862 
brought him to a state for which there was no alternative but instant depar- 
ture for Europe. As yet, however, no orders had been received from home in 
regard to the pension. It was clear that for these it would not do to wait, 
and the Council* under the emergency gave Blyth a year's leave on full pay. 
He had hardly gone when the expected reply was received, and this, notwith- 
standing the Yiceroy's strongly expressed opinion, provedf an unfavourable 
one. Eventually J a pension of £150 a year was conceded, owing, I believe, 
mainly to the untiring efforts made in London on Blyth's behalf by the late 
Sir P. Cautley and Dr. Ealconer. 

By the end of 1864 our Society's negociations with the Government for 
the transfer of its collections to the Indian Museum had been brought to a 
successful close, and at the November meeting the following just tribute was 
paid to our late Curator in the form of a resolution, which, on the Council's 
proposition, was carried unanimously : — 

" On the eve of transferring the zoological collections of the Society to 
Government, to form the nucleus of an Imperial Museum of Natural History, 
the Society wishes to record its sense of the important services rendered by 
its late Curator, Mr. Blyth, in the formation of those collections. In the 
period of twenty-two years during which Mr. Blyth was Curator of the 
Society's Museum, he has formed a large and valuable series of specimens 
richly illustrative of the ornithology of India and the Burmese Peninsula, 
and has added largely to the Mammalian and other vertebrate collections of 

* The Council's action in anticipation of the vote of a meeting was cordially approved 
at our annual meeting of 1863, but was protested against as illegal by Mr. Oldham, 
f J. B. A. S. xxxii. 32. } J. B. A. S. xxxiii. 73. 



Introduction. 



xm 



the Museum; while, by his numerous descriptive papers and catalogues* of 
the Museum specimens, he has made the materials thus amassed by him sub- 
servient to zoological science at large, and especially valuable to those engaged 
in the study of the vertebrate fauna of India and its adjoining countries."! 

Blyth was elected an Honorary Member of the Society in the follow- 
ing year. The Museum was now under a Board of Trustees, and a new 
Curator, better paid, and with all the prospective advantages of a Government 
official, had taken charge of it. "Writing to me from Malvern, in June, 
1865, Blyth says: ".I had always a presentiment that my successor in the 
Museum would be more adequately remunerated, beginning with just double 
what I had after more than twenty years' work, with an additional £50 yearly, 
and house accommodation! How very much more could I have accomplished 
with such an income ! " "With this mild explosion he brushed off discontent, 
and strove to make the most of his small means. His letters to me, and 
these were frequent up to the time of my leaving India in 1868, were full of 
his own special subject ; some of them are published in our Society's 
Proceedings. 

In January, 1864, Blyth visited Lublin, where he read two papers 
before the Eoyal Irish Academy. The first of these was ' On the True 
Stags or Elaphine division of the genus Cervus,' and does not appear to 
have been printed in extenso in the Academy's Proceedings. J His other 
paper, £ On the Animal Inhabitants of Ancient Ireland,' was published at 
length in the Academy's Proceedings § of January 25th. "What the extra- 
ordinary bones were which he exhibited at the meeting, and which he 
referred to as " probably Tibetan," was not explained in any of his letters. 

At a meeting of the Geological|| Society of Dublin, he made some 
remarks on a paper of Professor Haughton's ' On Geological Epochs/ and 
expressed his concurrence in Dr. Carte's identification of the bones of the 
Polar Pear discovered in Lough Gur, in County Limerick. On further ex- 
amination, however, these bones have been pronounced by Mr. Busk to be 
indistinguishable^ from those of Ursus ferox. 

The question of zoological distribution will be found to have been 
treated by Blyth, in a paper which he contributed to 'Nature' in 1871 

* Blyth's Catalogue of Mammalia was published in 1863, its last sheets being carried 
through the press by his friend Jerdon. 
t J. B. A. S. xxxiii. 582. 
X Vol. yiii. Jan. 11, 1864, p. 458. 
§ Id. qu. sup. p. 472. 
|| Proceedings G. S. D. for January 13, 1864, Journ. p. 173. 



' 



XIV 



Introduction. 



i 



(March 30). He had been led to consider it while drawing up the intro- 
ductory chapter which was to preface these catalogues, for in a letter to me 
dated 15th July of that year he refers to this MS. as follows : — 

" I suppose that Phayre showed you my sketch of what I conceive to 
be the true regions and sub-regions of S. E. Asia, and I expected that he 
would have modified somewhat my notions with regard to the provinces into 
which I venture to divide the Indo- Chinese sub-region, but he seems to have 
assented to them altogether. Only yesterday I received the ' Proceedings of 
the Asiatic Society ' for April and May last, and the ' Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal/ Part II., No. 1, 1871, and in p. 84 of the 'Proceedings' 
I find some remarks by Stoliczka which quite confirm my views, only that I 
think that, with regard to the extension of the Malayan fauna into India, he 
should rather have said Southern India, because the African affinities of 
Central and Northern India, inclusive of the Siwalik Deposits, are of ancient 
date, as shown by the occurrence of Bos namadicus in Central India, which 
is barely separable from the European B. primigenius (a type of Bos which is 
elsewhere only known from Europe), and by the presence of giraffes and of 
antelopes of African type in the Siwalik Deposits. I have such an enormous 
mass of valuable facts to deal with, that I gave over making them public in 
driblets at the meetings of the Zoological Society ; and I have now time and 
undisturbed leisure to treat of them in a work which I am preparing on ' The 
Origination of Species,' a subject upon which I think I can throw some 
light."* 

As pointed out in a note, Blyth's 'Austral- Asian region' is generally the 
same with Dr. Sclater's 'Indian region,' minus Hindustan proper, or the plains 
of Upper India east and south of the north-west desert— the Dukhun or table- 
land of the Peninsula with the intervening territory, inclusive of the Yindhyan 

Ghats— the Coromandel Coast and the low northern half of Ceylon all of 

which Blyth places in his Ethiopian region. What remains of India after 
this large deduction Blyth distributes through three sub-regions, viz. the 
Himalayan, Indo-Chinese, and Cinghalese. India cannot, he argues, be 
treated as a natural zoological province : it is a border-land in which different 
zoological regions meet, and one, therefore, "of extraordinarily complex 
zoological affinities." Burma of course falls within his Indo-Chinese sub- 



* Among the papers left by Blyth is one headed < Origination of the Various Races of 
Man,' which he may have intended to form part of the book here referred to. It contains 
nothing original, but brings together numerous points of resemblance and contrast observable 
in the several groups of the order Primates. 



Introduction. 



xv 



region, which extends southward as far as Penang and Province Wellesley, 
where his Malayan sub-region commences. 

The interest which Blyth had always taken in the Ehinoceros group was 
revived by the safe arrival at the Zoological Gardens of the Chittagong indi- 
vidual, the Ceratorhinus erossei of the present Catalogue. In his paper con- 
tributed to the ' Annals ? in 1872, he argues against Gray's assignment of this 
species to Rhinoceros suniatrensis, and in favour of its identity with the 
fine Tavoy specimen shot by Col. Eytche, and figured in this Journal, vol. xxxi. 
p. 156. Blyth 5 s conjecture that the Arakan Hills is one of the habitats of 
this species is borne out by the letter in which Capt. Lewin, the superin- 
tendent of the Hill Tracts of Chittagong, first reported to me in 1867 the 
capture of the animal.^ After giving her measurements, which were then 
6 feet from crown of head to root of tail, and 4 feet 2 inches in height, and 
otherwise minutely describing her horns, Capt. Lewin adds : " You are mis- 
taken I think in supposing that she has come from the Tenasserim Provinces 
— the two-horned species is found in my hills. I have seen one alive, and 
several of my men have seen a dead one." 

In the Journal of Travel and Natural History, No. 2,f of 1868, will be 
found a letter from Blyth in explanation of some remarks which he had made 
at the Zoological Society on the occasional shedding or loss by violence of 
rhinoceros' horns, followed by their renewal. In this he takes the opportunity 
of pointing out the tendency which some species have to develope a rudi- 
mentary horn on the forehead, and argues for the possible explanation in this 
manner of cases of three-horned rhinoceroses being reported by travellers. 

The connexion which Blyth established, first with 'Land and "Water, 7 
and later with the * Pield,' gave him interesting literary occupation; 
and the 'Naturalist ' columns of both these journals abound in scraps 
by 'Zoophilus,' which did real service to the advancement of scientific truth. 
No pen so ready as his to expose current fallacies or sensational announce- 
ments in works of travel of the results of loose and careless observations. 
Yery many of his c scraps ' are worthy of being collected and preserved, for 
such use as we see they have been turned to by Mr. Darwin. These columns 
occasionally contained more elaborate papers, such as the series in the 
1 Field 7 for 1873, on '"Wild Animals dispersed by human agency/ and 'On 
the Gruidse or Crane family/ This monograph, for such it amounts to, was 



* The date of capture is erroneously given, both by Mr. Blyth and by Dr. Anderson in 
his cited communication to the Zoological Society, 
t Page 130. 



XVI 



Introduction. 



s 



its writer's last utterance. He had long been ailing, and in the autumn of 
this year he became very ill, and went to Antwerp for a change. On his 
return he called on me, feeling, as he said, better, though complaining of 
great prostration. He seemed full of what he had seen in the Antwerp 
Zoological Garden, where he thought he had found another new species of 
Ehinoceros. This was our last interview. Though nursed by a tenderly- 
attached sister, his weakness increased, and he died of heart disease on the 
27th of December, within a day or two of his 63rd birthday. 

More competent authorities than I can pretend to be have done justice 
to the high intellectual powers which Elyth displayed from the outset of his 
career as a naturalist ; to the wonderful capacity and accuracy of his memory, 
which, unassisted by any systematic notes, assimilated the facts once stored 
in it, and enabled him readily to refer to his authority for them ; to his great 
power of generalization, and to the conscientious use which he made of it. 
Abundant proof of the high respect with which his opinions were always 
listened to, and of the careful consideration given to them even where they 
were not accepted, is to be found in the published works of his brother natural- 
ists. No higher testimony to his habitual scientific caution need be adduced 
than that of Mr. Darwin, but it is equally borne by Jerdon throughout his pub- 
lished writings. Gould % refers to him as " one of the first zoologists of his 
time, and the founder of the study of that science in India." I confine myself 
here to putting on record the tribute of an old and intimate friend, to the 
excellent qualities of heart possessed by Blyth. The warmth and freshness of 
his feelings which first inspired him with the love of Nature clung to him 
through his chequered life, and kept him on good terms with the world, 
•which punished him, as it is wont to do, for not learning more of its wisdom. 
Had he been a less imaginative and a more practical man, he must have been a 
prosperous one. Pew men who have written so much have left in their writings 
so little that is bitter. No man that I have ever known was so free as he was 
from the spirit of intolerance ; and the absence of this is a marked feature in 
all his controversial papers. All too that he knew was at the service of 
everybody. No one asking him for information asked in vain. Among the 
many pleasurable reminiscences of my own long residence in India, few are 
more agreeable than those which recall his frequent Sunday visits to me. 

The Society are largely indebted to the three able Naturalists who have 
lent their aid to the publication of these Catalogues. That of the Mam- 
malia, with the exception of the Bats, was revised by Dr. Anderson last 



* < Birds of Asia,' Pt. XXVI. Trochalopteron blythii. 



Introduction. 



xvn 



year, before he was summoned to India to join the second expedition to 
Yunan. Dr. Dobson, of the Eoyal Victoria Hospital of Netley, has edited 
the Catalogue of the order CMroptera, the study of which he has long 
specially cultivated. In both cases the notes and additions of the editors are 
inclosed within brackets, and bear their respective initials. One or two 
notes added by myself are signed ' Editor.' All unsigned notes and citations 
of references are those of the author of the Catalogues. 

The Catalogue of Birds will be found, under Lord "Walden's able and 
conscientious treatment, to be a complete list of the Burmese species, 660 in 
number, as ascertained to date. His editorial notes and additions, which 
embrace the latest information afforded by his fine collection, are inclosed in 
brackets, and largely enhance the value of the Catalogue. Blyth's MS., for 
the species enumerated in it, has been scrupulously adhered to, obvious 
errors of orthography having alone been corrected, and localities being 
added where the habitats were doubtful when he wrote. On this last 
point I quote Lord Walden's own words : 

" The names of the localities added are given on the authority of Mr. 
"Davison, Mr. Oates, Major Lloyd, Captain Feilden, and Lieutenant "Ward- 
"law Eamsay, whose initials will be found attached. My endeavour has 
" been to include those localities which, while within the range, are not 
"specified by Mr. Blyth. All Major Lloyd's and Lieutenant W. Kamsay's 
" specimens and some of Captain Feilden's have been identified by me. Mr. 
"Hume is responsible for the accurate identification of those obtained by 
"Mr. Davison and Mr. Oates, and although that gentleman, in most 
"cases, adopts the faulty nomenclature of Mr. G. E. Gray's Hand List, I 
" believe I have succeeded in correctly interpreting his meaning." 



London, August 27, 1875. 



A. GEOTE. 



List of Mr. JBlyWs published papers in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal and other Journals, with the necessary references. 

Curator's Eeports, read at the Society's Monthly Meetings. 

Eeport for September, 1841, read by his predecessor, Mr. Piddington, on 
the occasion of Mr. Elyth's first introduction to the meeting of the 
6th October, X. 836. 
Eeport for October, 1841, X. Pt. 2, 917. 
„ i November, 1841, X. Pt. 2, 936. 



XY111 



Introduction. 



Report for January, 1842, XI. Pt. 1, 95. 
„ February, 1842, XI. Pt. 1, 129. 
„ April, 1842, XI. Pt. 1, 444. 
„ June, 1842, XI. Pt. 1, 585. 
,, July, 1842, XI. Pt. 2, 788. The two Appendices to this Eeport 

monograph the Asiatic Drongos and Quails. 
„ August, 1842, XL Pt. 2, 865. Treating mainly of Eeptilia. 
„ September, 1842, XI. Pt. 2, 880. 
„ October, 1842, XL Pt. 2, 969. 
„ November, 1842, XL Pt. 2, 1202. 

„ February, 1843, XII. Pt. 1, 166. To which is appended a 
revision of all previous reports, beginning with some interesting obser- 
vations on Asiatic Simiadae. 
„ November, 1843, XII. Pt. 2, 925. This is entitled the " Monthly 
Eeport for December, 1842," but it contains Addenda, which cover 
the whole intervening period. It is very full and interesting, especially 
in its comments on collections from Darjeeling. 

„ May, 1844, XIII. Pt. 1, 361. Further appendix to the above 
report for December, 1842. It describes the Mynahs and Babblers. 
„ November, 1846, XV. p. xcix. 
„ February, 1847, XYI. Pt. 1, 209. 
March, 1847, XYI. Pt. 1, 385. 
• „ April, 1847, XVI. Pt. 1, 502. 
May, 1847, XVI. Pt. 1, 603. 
„ June, 1847, XVI. Pt. 2, 725. Describing the Quadrumana in the 

Society's Collection. 
„ July, 1847, XVI. Pt. 2, 863. Describes the Sciuridje in the 

Society's Collection, and gives Addenda to previous Eeports. 
„ August, 1847, XVI. Pt. 2, 992. "With Supplement. Describes 

the Hornbill group. 
„ December, 1847, XVI. Pt. 2, 1271. Eemarks on the different 
species of Pangolins. 
„ January, 1848, XVII. Pt. 1, 82. 
„ March, 1848, XVII. Pt. 1, 247. 
„ April, May, and June, 1848, XVII. Pt. 1, 559. 
„ January, 1849, XVIII. Pt. 1, 80. 
„ June, 1850, XIX. 426. 
July, 1850, XIX. 490. 
„ September, 1850, XIX. 497. 



Introduction. 



xix 



Appends a short note to his paper 
Describes in a note the series of 



Eeport for October, 1850, XIX. 561. 

„ January, 1851, XX. 108. (Arrear Eeports of 1849.) 
„ February, 1851, XX. 213. 
„ August, 1851, XX. 443. 
„ April, 1852, XXI. 341-358. 
May, 1852, XXI. 433. 
May, 1853, XXII. 408. 
September, 1853, XXII. 580. 
October, 1853, XXII. 589. 
February, 1854, XXIII. 210. 
on Orangutans in Yol. XXII. 
„ October, 1854, XXIII. 729. 

Indian and Tibetan Foxes in the Society's Museum. 
„ February, 1855, XXIV. 178. 
„ March, 1855, XXIV. 187. 

April, 1855, XXIV. 252. Eeports on Euppell's contributions 
from Abyssinia, and mentions TickelPs and Frith' s discoveries of Ad- 
jutants' nests. 

May, 1855, XXIV. 359. 
„ July, 1855, XXIV. 469. Enumerates in a note the series of 

smaller Squirrels in the Society's Collection. 
„ October, 1855, XXIV. 711. Is mainly given to notices of 
Theobald's contributions of Eeptiles and other specimens from Tenas- 
serim provinces. 
„ August, 1856, XXV. 439. Eemarks in a note on the two 
supposed wild types of the Domestic Cats of India. 
May, 1857, XXVI. 238. 
July, 1857, XXVI. 284. 
„ October, 1857, XXVI. 314. 
„ December, 1857, XXVII. 81. Subjoins in a note a synopsis of 

the species of Palceornis with their synonyms. 
„ May, 1858, XXVII. 267. Describes Dr. Liebig's contributions 
from the Andaman Islands, and numerous Siluroid and other Fishes 
obtained in the neighbourhood of Calcutta. 

February to May, 1859, XXVIII. 271. Further observations on 
Andaman collections. A note elucidates the series of Flying Squirrels. 
„ September, 1859, XXVIII. 411. Eeports on Tickell's contribu- 
tions from Tenasserim. 



XX 



Introduction. 



Beport for March, 1860, XXIX. 87. Eeports on Swinhoe's contributions 
from Amoy and Formosa ; on Cape specimens from Layard ; and on 
further collections from the Andaman Islands. 

„ April and May, 1860, XXIX. 447. 

„ May and June, 1860, XXX. 90. Reports on collections from 
China, the Philippine Islands, and Cape of Good Hope. 

,, July, 1861, XXX. 185. Comments on Stags and Staghorns. 
This report first announces his new conclusions in regard to Cervus 
affinis. 

„ February, 1862, XXXI. 331. Eeports on collections from British 
Burma, and enumerates in a note the ascertained species of Sciuridse 
in that province. 

„ February (continued), 1863, XXXII. 73, 451. Eeports on col- 
lections from Burma and Port Blair. In a note are enumerated the 
Testudinata of the Burmese provinces so far as then ascertained. 
Letter from Blyth, December 2, 1864, XXXIY. Pt. 2, 48. Comments on 
Milne-Edwards's Monograph of the Chevrotains. 

„ No date. On Inuus Assamensis and Indian Eats and Mice, XXXIV. 
Pt. 2, 192. 

„ September 17th, 1865, XXXIV. Pt. 2, 279. Eefers to his forth- 
coming Comments in the Ibis on Jerdon's 'Birds of India.' Concludes 
with an enumeration of the species of Arloricola. 

„ No date. XXXV. Pt. 2, 156. 



Communications to the Journal of the Society. The papers marked with an 
asterisk were reprinted in the Annals of Natural History. 

1841. General review of the species of true Stag, or Elaphoid form of 

Cervus, comprising those more immediately related to the Eed 

Deer of Europe. X. Pt. 2, 736. 
Monograph of the species of Wild Sheep. X. Pt. 2, 858. 
Description of another new species of Pika (Lagomys) from the 

Himalaya. X. Pt. 2, 816. 
Ditto of three Indian species of Bat, of the genus Tapho%ous. X. 

Pt. 2, 971. 

1842. Notes on various Indian and Malayan Birds. XI. Pt. 1, 160. 
Notice of the predatory and sanguivorous habits of the Bats of the 

genus Megaderma, with some remarks on the blood-sucking pro- 
pensities of other Vesper tilionidce. XI. Pt. 1, 255. 



Introduction. 



xxi 



1842. 



1844. 



1845, 



1846 
1847. 
1849. 



1850 



1851, 



1853. 

1854 
1855 



Monograph of the species of Lynx. XI. Pt. 2, 740. 

Descriptive notice of the Bat described as Tapho%ous longimanus by 

General Hardwicke. XI. Pt. 2, 784. 
Monograph of the Indian and Malayan species of Cuculidce, or Birds 

of the Cuckoo family. XL Pt. 2, 897 and 1095. 
Notes of various Mammalia, with descriptions of many new species — 

Pt. 1, Primates. XIII. Pt. 1, 463* 
Additions to and annotations on Hodgson's Leiotrichine Birds of the 

Sub-Himalaya, with a synopsis of the Indian Pari and Indian 

FringillidcB. XIII. Pt. 2, 933. 
Notices and descriptions of various new or little-known species of 

Birds. XIY. Pt. 1, 173; XIY. Pt. 2, 546; XV. Pt. 1, 280; 

XYL Pt. 1, 117-428. 
Description of Caprolagus, a new genus of Leporine mammalia. XIY. 

Pt. 1, 247* 
Drafts for a Fauna Indica — No. 1, Columbidce. XIY. Pt. 2, 845.* 
Notes on the Pauua of the Nicobar Islands. XY. 367. 
Some further notice of the species of "Wild Sheep. XYL Pt. 1, 350. 
Note on the Sciuri inhabiting Ceylon, and those of the Tenasserim 

provinces. XVIII. Pt. 1, 600. 
A supplemental note to the Catalogue of the Birds in the Asiatic 

Society's Museum. XVIII. Pt. 2, 800. 
Description of a new species of Mole (Talpa leucura, Blyth). XIX. 

215* 
Remarks on the modes of variation of nearly affined species or races 

of Birds, chiefly inhabitants of India. XIX. 221. 
Conspectus of the Ornithology of India. XIX. 229—319, 501. 
Notice of a collection of Mammalia, Birds and Reptiles procured at 

or near the Plateau of Cherra Punji, in the Khasia hills north of 

Sylhet, XX. 517. 
Report on the Mammalia and more remarkable species of Birds in- 
habiting Ceylon. XX. 153. 
Remarks on the different species of Orangutan. XXII. 369. 
Notes and descriptions of various Reptiles new or little known. 

XXII. 639. 
Monograph of the Indian species of Phylloscopus and its immediate 

affines. XXIII. 479.* 
Memoir on the Indian species of Shrews. XXIV. 24.* 
Report on a Zoological Collection from the Somali country. XXIV. 291. 



xxii Introduction. 

1855. Further remarks on the different species of Orangutan. XXIV. 

518. 

1857. Description of a new Indian Pigeon akin to the ' Stock Dove' of 

Europe, with notices of other Columbines. XXYI. 217.** 

1859. On the different animals known as Wild Asses. XXVIII. 229.* 

On the Great Borqual of the Indian Ocean, with notices of other 
Cetals, and of the Syrenia or Marine Pachyderms. XXVIII. 
481. 

1860. On the flat-horned Taurine Cattle of S.E. Asia, with a note on the 

races of Keindeer, and on Domestic Animals in general. XXIX. 

282—376. 
Report on some Pishes, received chiefly from the Sitang river and its 

tributary streams, Tenasserim provinces. XXIX. 138. 
The Cartilaginous Pishes of Lower Bengal. XXIX. 35. 

1862. Memoir on the living Asiatic species of Rhinoceros. XXXI. 151. 
Purther note on Elephants and Rhinoceroses. XXXI. 196. 
Ditto on "Wild Asses and alleged Wild Horses. XXXI. 363. 

1863. Memoir on the Rats and Mice of India. XXXII. 327. 



List of communications to the ' Ibis.' 



I. p. 464. 1859. Letter stating the occurrence of Catarractes pomarinus in 

Moulmein, with remarks on the Zoology of the Andamans. 

II. p. 323. 1860. Note on Edible Birds 7 Nests. His letter, from which 

extracts are also published, mentions his new Cassowary, C. uno 
appendiculatus. 

III. p. 268. 1861. Note on the Calcutta Adjutant, Leptoptilus argala. 

IY. 1862. Among his letters extracted from in this Vol., the last (p. 385), 
on Jerdon's new Eirds from Upper Burma, is the most interesting. 

V. 1863. Catalogue of the Eirds of India, with remarks on their Geo- 

graphical Distribution. Part I. Scansores and Raptores. 

Note on the genus Pyrrhula. 

His letter extracted from at p. 117 of this Vol. announces Tytler's 

last Andaman discoveries, Mcematornis Elgini, etc. 

VI. 1864. His letter at p. 411 remarks on the distinct characters of the 

Bucconidcc and Capitonidce, which he had pointed out so far back as 
1838. 
New Seeies. I. 1865. A few identifications and rectifications of Synonymy. 



Introduction. 



xxni 



II. 1866. The Ornithology of India. A Commentary on Dr. Jerdon's 

' Birds of India/ 

III. 1867. The same paper continued. 

The Ornithology of Ceylon. A supplement to Dr. Jerdon's ' Birds 
of India.' 

IV. 1868. Extracts from letters only. 

VI. 1870. Notes relating chiefly to the Birds of India; being Comments on 
the Collections of the Leyden Museum, which Blyth had visited in 
1869. 

Third seeies. II. 1872. Letter commenting on Hume's observations on 
Kalicctus albicilla, and on Xhasia Birds in the India Museum. 



Communications to ' Annals of Natural History.' 

1843. First series. XII. pp. 90, 165, 229. List of Birds obtained in the 

vicinity of Calcutta, with remarks on their habits. 

1844. XIII. p. 113. Further notice of the species of Birds occurring in the 

vicinity of Calcutta. 

XIII. p. 175. Description of some new species found in the neigh- 
bourhood of Calcutta. 

XIV. pp. 34-114. Further observations on the Ornithology of the 
neighbourhood of Calcutta, with notes by H. E. Strickiand. 

1847. XX. p. 382. Critical remarks on the republication by Mr. Strickland 

of Karl Sundevall's paper on the Birds of Calcutta. 
XX. p. 313. Critical remarks on J. E. Gray's Catalogue of Hodgson's 
Collections. 

1848. Second seeies. I. p. 454. Corrections of ditto. 

1871. Eotjeth seeies. VIII. p. 204. On the supposititious Bos (?) pegasus of 

the late Col. C. Hamilton Smith. 

1872. X. p. 399. On the species of Asiatic two-horned Ehinoceros. 



I find on reference to the Index published in 1872 of the Proceedings of 
the Zoological Society, that besides exhibiting and remarking on Horns and 
other specimens at its meetings, Blyth contributed the following papers : — 



1861. Notes on some Birds collected by Dr. Jerdon in Sikkim. 
Letter on Rhinoceros crossii, Gray, 



XXIV 



Introduction. 



1863. Synoptical List of the species of Felis inhabiting the Indian Eegion 

and the adjacent parts of Middle Asia. 

1864. Notes on sundry Mammals (Chevrotains, Asiatic Civets, and the 

Unicorn Goat of Tibet). 

1866. Ditto on African Buffalos. 

1867. Kemarks on an Indian Quail (RolMas superciliosus). 

Notes on three Asiatic species of Deer, viz. Rucervus duvaucellt, R. 
schornlurghi, and Panolia eldi. 
1869. Notice of two overlooked species of Antelope (Bosclaphus major and 
Strepsiceros imlerlis. 
On the Hybrid between the Chamois and the Domestic Goat- 
Contributed to Journal of Travel and Natural History. 

1868. No. 4. Eeview of Layard's ' Birds of South Africa.' 



ERRATA. 



"No. 1. 1875," had been introduced into the upper corners of some of 
the earlier pages, which were printed off before the oversight was discovered. 



p. 24. "Order Secundates " omitted in the heading over the words 
" Sub-order Carnivora." 



p. 52, note. For " P.Z.S, 1873/' read " 1872." 



Catalogue of the Mammals and Birds of Burma .- 
Edward Blyth, C.M.Z.S. 



-By the late 



Sub-kingdom VERTEBRATA, 

Class MAMMALIA. 

Order PRIMATES. 

Sub-order Cheiropoda. 

Tribe CATARRHINI. 

Fam. Hylofoatidse. 

Gibbons, or Long-armed Apes. 

*1. Hylobates hoolock.* 

Simia hoolock, Harlan ; E. scyrites and H. choromandus, Ogilby. Myouk Ulwai-gyen, 
Arakan ; also Too-poung, of the Arakanese, Tickell. 

The White-browed Gibbon inhabits the hill-forests from the basin of the 
Brahmaputra to that of the Irawadi. 

2. H. LAK. 

Homo lar, L. ; Simia longimana, Schreber ; S. albimana, Vigors and Horsfield ; Pithecus 
mriegatus, Geoffroy (nee Kubl) ; H. entelloides, Is. Geoffroy ; H. pileatus, Gray. 

The White-handed Gibbon bears the same native name as the preceding 
species, and inhabits the hill-forests of the Tenasserim provinces, Malayan 
peninsula, Siam, Cambodja, if not also Hainan, and probably the South 
of China. 

According to Dr. Anderson, two species of Gibbon occur in the 
vicinity of Bhamo ; f but I cannot help suspecting that mere differences 
of colour were so regarded, especially as one of them, mentioned as a 
light-coloured species, is indicated from native report only. Black examples 
of m hoohclc and H. lar have been figured from life by Dr. Sclater ; % and 

* An asterisk prefixed denotes that the species was obtained by Sir A. P. Phayre. 
t "Report of Expedition to "Western Yunan via Bbamo," by J. Anderson, M.D., 
pp. 256, 271, 273. X p. Z . S. }«»«. y "-j, y y. 

1 



2 Mammals of Burma. 

three differently coloured individuals, representing what I consider to he 
•varieties of H. lar from Cambodja, by the name H. pileatus, have also been 
figured by Dr. Gray.*' The dubious B. pileatus is supposed by Mr. Swinhoe 
to be the particular kind of Gibbon which inhabits the Chinese island of 
Hainan, and he also reports the alleged existence of a black species of long- 
armed Ape in the country West of Canton, f The variations of colour of 
B. hoolock and B. lar I have elsewhere described ; % and I have seen 
examples of B. lar from the Malayan peninsula corresponding to the figures 
assigned to the supposed B. pileatus. 

Both the White-browed and the White-handed Gibbons vary exceed- 
ingly in shade of hue, from black to sullied white and pale fulvescent; 
the two sexes equally of B. lar, but the females only, so far as I have seen, 
of B. hoolock. The males of the latter would appear to be constantly black, 
the females rarely so, at least in Assam, though according to Colonel Tickell 
both sexes of it are always black in Arakan. A pale specimen from 
Sandoway has nevertheless been recorded. § In the opinion of Col. Tickell 
the Gibbon of Arakan is different from that inhabiting the forests and hills 
of Kachar, Manipur, and Assam, "or, if the same," the latter "is so strongly 
modified as to be larger and stouter, with a totally different call, and subject 
to vary the same as B. lar, which B. hoolock in Arakan is not." || I 
remember seeing a pair of tame Hoolocks, about full-grown, at Akyab, at a 
time when I had long been familiar with the animal, which is not rarely 
brought to Calcutta from the Garo and other hill-ranges bordering upon the 
valley of the Brahmaputra ; and I failed to perceive the slightest difference 
in voice or any other particular. 

Whatever the rest of the colouring may be, B. hoolock has constantly 
a broad white frontal band either continuous or divided in the middle; 
while B. lar has invariably white hands and feet, less brightly so, in some, 
and a white ring, encircling the visage, which is seldom incomplete. Some 
of both species are variegated or parti-coloured; and the pale examples 
of B. lar constitute the supposed B. entelloides.\ Whether the two any- 
where inhabit the same forests, and what the limits of the range of either 
of them may be, has yet to be ascertained, but the habits which Tickell 
and I have detailed may be considered to have generic application.** 



* P. Z. S. 1861, p. 136, pi. xxi. f ibid. 1870, pp. 224, 615. 

+ J. A. S. B. xvi. pp. 729, 730. § ibid. xiii. p. 464. 

|| ibid, xxxiii. p. 196. % Archives du Museum, torn. ii. p. 532, t. 1. 

** J. A. S. B. xiii. p. 464, and Tickell, ibid. vol. xxxiii. p. 196. 



1875.] 



Long-armed Apes. 



According to Dr. Theodore Cantor,* the H. variegatus, Kuhl {nee 
Geoffroy, = H. agilis, Fr. 'Cuvier, = JET. raffiesii, Geoffroy, = H. leueogenys 9 
Ogilby), is also an inhabitant of the Malayan peninsula, though less 
numerous there than IT. lar ; S. variegatus occurring elsewhere for certain 
only in Sumatra, where it inhabits, together with H. syndaetylus (Simia 
syndactyly Baffles, Siamanga syndaetyla, Gray), the Siamang or Pouched 
Gibbon. Heifer even states that the latter species has been found in the 
southern parts of the Tenasserim provinces, as high as the 15th deg. N. lat.f 
Cantor, however, does not include it in his "List of Mammalia inhabiting 
the Malayan Peninsula ;" J but Mr. Wallace asserts that it "is not un- 
common in some parts'' of that peninsula. § This, it may be suspected, 
is a mistake, arising probably from the circumstance that — as Sir T. 
Stamford Baffles remarks — " Samang or Siamang is the name given to 
certain tribes of aboriginal inhabitants of the Malayan peninsula." || The 
Siamang Ape, there is reason to believe, is quite peculiar to the island 
of Sumatra, where only Mr. "Wallace actually observed it; and the fact 
that in other species of Gibbon the second and third digits of the foot are 
occasionally connected, may have deceived Heifer and others into the sup- 
position that such animals represented the veritable H. syndaetylus. 

The Siamang is distinguished from all other Gibbons, not only by its 
much greater size, but by its possessing an inflatable laryngeal sac. Mr. 
Wallace remarks of it that "it moves much more slowly than the active 
Hylobates" {JEL. agilis, I\ Cuvier), "keeping lower down on trees, and not 
indulging in such tremendous leaps; but it is still," he adds, "very active, 
and by means of its immense long arms, five feet across in an adult about 
three feet high, can swing itself along at a great rate." In all of the 
species of Gibbon the thumbs of both the hands and feet are separated 
from the other digits to the base of the metacarpal and metatarsal bones ; 
a character which is distinctly represented in no published figure that 
I know of, nor am I aware that it occurs in any other quadrumana, 
with the exceptions of the allied lemurian genera Indris and Propitheeus. 
It also is not generally understood that the long-armed Apes are true 
bipeds when on the ground, applying the sole flatly, with the pollux 
widely separated from the other digits ; the hands are held up to be out of 
the way, rather than for balancing, and this even when ascending a flight 
of steps, as I have seen repeatedly, but they are ever ready to seize hold 



* J. A. S. B. xv. p. 173. f ibid. vii. p. U 

§ " Travels in the Malay Archipelago," i. p. 131 



% I.e. p. 173. 
||' Tr. Lin. Soc, xiii. p. 242. 



Mammals of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



■ II I 



of any object by which the animal can assist itself along, even as a human 
being commonly grasps a banister when ascending a stair-case. Upon the 
forest trees, however, the Gibbons swing themselves about or forward 
by means of their upper limbs only, with extreme facility and grace, and 
at a marvellous rate of speed when duly exerting themselves, taking the 
most astounding hand-leaps in rapid and continuous succession when in full 
career. They are further remarkable for their exceedingly loud shouting 
cries, not unmusical in tone, which are often uttered in concert, and differ 
more or less in the different species. 

Dr. Gray separates the Siamang from Hylobates, and expresses a 
suspicion that all the rest may prove to be local varieties of one species. 
I am familiar with four of them in the living state, and I consider 
these to be sufficiently well distinguished to rank as species. No one who 
knows the two could well confound a white-browed with a white-handed 
Gibbon, and their voices differ considerably. To the best of my recol- 
lection, that of H. variegatus also differs very appreciably from these; 
and the voice of &. leuciscus, which is peculiar to Java, I do not re- 
member to have heard. Of the Eornean H. concolor {Simia concolor, Har- 
lan, H. harlani. Lesson), I have only seen mounted skins, and it is most 
nearly akin to S. variegatus, if indeed separable from it ; and JE. funereus, 
Is. Geoff., is another alleged species inhabiting the "Solo" or Sulu Archi- 
pelago* Living specimens of both of the latter require to be compared 
with living specimens of JT. variegatus. 

Fam. Papionidae. 

Monkeys with simple stomach, and provided with cheek-pouches ; inclusive of the 

African Baboons. 
*3. Lsuus LEOKINUS. 
Muus leoninus, Blyth, Catalogue of the Mammalia in the Museum of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal, 1863, p. 7, No. 14; Macacus nemestrinus? var., J. A. S. B. vol. xiii. p. 473; 
/. aretoides? ibid. vol. xvi. p. 731; M. andamanensis, Bartlett, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 467 
and fig.; 1870, pp. 220, 663, and pi. xxxv., p. 598. Myoul-la-hoing, Arakan; Myouk-me, 
Tenasserim, Mason. 

The Long-haired Pig-tail Monkey was originally described from two 
skins without skull or other bones attached, which were transmitted to 
Calcutta from Arakan by the author of the present paper. One was 
that of a particularly fine male, with hair on the fore-quarters from 
four to five inches long, and the tail-tuft of a deep ferruginous colour, 

* Archives du Museum, torn. v. p. 532, pi. xxvi. 



1875.] 



Short-tailed Monkeys. 



which also tinged the fore-quarters. The other was that of a small young 
animal, rather pale in colour. It does not appear to be a common species, 
and chiefly inhabits the limestone mountains from the North of Arakan to 
an undetermined distance southward. In the Malayan peninsula, it is 
replaced by the nearly allied I. nemestrinus, the well-known Short-haired 
Pig-tail Monkey of the Malay countries, which is a likely species to 
inhabit also the southern Tenasserim provinces. Both of them are highly 
docile,^ and the manifold performances of "Jenny," the so-called Andaman 
Monkey, that lived for some time in the London Zoological Gardens, will 
be remembered by very many visitors. A fine male has since lived in 
the Eegent's Park collection. In Sumatra the short-haired species is 
commonly trained to gather cocoa-nuts, as noticed by Baffles, and recently 
by an American traveller, Mr. A. S. Bickmore.f 

The long-haired species distinctly tends to connect the Malayan Pig- 
tail Monkey with the series of Bhesus-monkeys ; and one of these, I. sancti- 
Johannis, Swinhoe, inhabiting the islets near Hongkong, is described to be 
"like a Bhesus with a very short tail." Another Chinese species, I. 
lasiotus, Gray, J was described and figured as tail-less ; but it is a common 
practice among Chinamen to deprive Monkeys of their tails, as was found 
on post-mortem examination to have been effected in the present instance, 
and the animal was otherwise like a Bengal Bhesus-monkey, only much 
larger. There is reason to believe that it inhabits the province of Tse- 
Chuen, whence probably it ranges southward into Hainan, in which island 
a Bhesus-like Monkey was obtained by Mr. Swinhoe, who regarded it as 
identical with the Bengal species. Another monkey of the same group 
inhabits Formosa, I. cyclopis, Swinhoe, § small and dark in colour. Then, 
besides I. erythrceus, (Simia erythrcea, Schreber, 8. rhesus, Audebert), of 
Bengal and Upper India, there are L pelops, Hodgson, in the Himalaya, 
and I. assamensis (if. assamensis, M'Clelland, = M. prohlematieus, Gray, = 
if. rhesosirnilis, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 495, pi. 25), originally 
described from Assam, and since obtained from the Bengal Sundarbans.|| It 



* [This remark seems applicable only to the females and young, for the adult males 
are well known to be very fierce. A full-grown M. nemestrinus is nearly as large and 
formidable as an ill-conditioned mastiff. — J. A.] 

f " Travels in the East India Archipelago" (1868), p. 478. 

X P. Z. S. 1868, p. 60, pi. vi.; also Sclater, ibid. 1871, p. 221. 

§ P. Z. S. 1862, p. 350, pi. xlii. ; 1864, p. 711 ; 1870, p. 615, and woodcut. 

|| " Supposed new Monkey from the Bengal Sundarbans," J. Anderson, M.D., P.Z.S. 
1872, pp. 529-533, figure of skull and skull of M. rhesus. 



Mammals of Burma. 



£No. 1, 



is only quite recently that the distinctions of these animals have become 
tolerably understood. Even another of them has been described by M. 
Adolphe Milne-Edwards as M. tchiliensis* from "Tche-ly," which, to 
judge from the published figure of a female, is not unlikely to prove 
identical with I. pelops.j So far as known, the Pig-tailed Monkeys are 
the only representatives of the sub-group in the Indo-Chinese and Malayan 
countries; but another and kindred sub-group, indeed hardly separable, that 
of the Stump-tail Monkeys, has at least one Indo-Chinese representative. 






4. Inttus speoiostjs.J 
Macacus speciosus, F. Cuvier, Maram. Lithog. ; nee apud Temminck, Faun. Japon. t. 1 ; 
M. arctoides, Is. Geoffrey, Zoo. de Voy. de Belanger, 1830; Mag. de Zool. 1833, Mamm., 
t. 2; M. brunneus, Anderson, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 628 ; 1872, p. 628, pi. xii. 

The brown Stump-tail Monkey, described by M. Isidore Geoffroy St.- 
Hilaire from Cochin-China, and since obtained in Kachar, and by Dr. 
Anderson in the Kakhyen hills to the East of Bhamo. 

There are several nearly-allied species of Monkey with very short naked 
tail, and one in Japan in which the same kind of tail is fully clad. The latter 
was identified by Prof. Temminck with the Macaque a face rouge, M. 
speciosus, F. Cuvier, but it is not probable that the French zoologist should 
have obtained the Japanese species, and his figure applies much better 
to the present one, which he is far more likely to have received from 
Cochin-China. In this case the Japanese monkey might bear the name 
of I. fuscatus, formerly applied to it in the Leyden Museum. Together with 
living specimens of I. speciosus, as here recognized, there was received at the 
London Zoological Gardens a very similar monkey which, at first sight, 
appeared like a rufous individual of the same, but on minute comparison of 
the living animals it was adjudged to be different, and has been figured and 

* Recherches sur les Mammiferes, p. 227, plates 32, 33. 

f [M. tchiliensis is apparently the same monkey described by Dr. Gray (I.e.) as 
M. lasiotus. — J. A.] 

% [Dr. Murie has identified a Macaque that lived in the Zoological Society's Garden, 
London, as an example of M. speciosus, F. Cuv. and Geoff. St.-Hil., and he bas pointed out 
certain structural characters which separate it from a monkey which he has regarded as if. 
arctoides, Geoff. St.-Hil. Tbis last-mentioned specimen had been described by Dr. Anderson 
as a new species under tbe name of M . brunneus. M. arctoides was characterized by Geoff 
St.-Hilaire as «une espece tres distincte de la precedente (M. speciosus) par ses longs poils 
plusieurs fois anneles de brun et de roux-clair, . . ." and he also says tbat the black-faced M. 
maurus is separated by its uniformly brown hair from M. arctoides, wbich has well annulated 
hair, whilst M. brunneus has its hair of a uniform colour.— .J. A.] 



1875.] 



Short-tailed Monkeys. 



described as Macacus rufescens, Anderson.* A second specimen of it has since 
been received. Its habitat is unknown. Another allied species, brown, with 
hair upon the head much lengthened, constitutes the M. melanotus, Ogilby ;f 
habitat also unknown, as the assigned habitat of Madras cannot be accepted. 
M. Fred. Cuvier likewise figures M. maurus (Id. inornatus, Gray, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 1866, p. 202, pi. xix.), a dark and black-faced Monkey of the same 
group, which is believed to inhabit Borneo ; and M. ochreatus, Ogilby (if. 
ocreatus apud Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 383, pi. lxxxii., and M.fus- 
catus, Schinz, apud Gray), is believed to come either from Celebes or one 
of the Philippines. The Synopithecus niger apud Gray (M. niger, Desm.), 
formerly supposed to inhabit Celebes, would appear now to be a Philippine 
species. There is much yet to be learned respecting the exact habitat, or 
the geographical range, of all of these various stump-tailed Monkeys. One 
of great size, M. tibetanus, Ad. Milne-Edwards, £ has recently been described 
to inhabit "the coldest and least accessible forests of Eastern Thibet," and 
this one has the short tail clad as in the Japanese species. 



*5. Macacus cynomolgtjs. 

Simia cynomolgus, L. ; Macaque of Buffon; M. carbonarius, F. Cuv., Mamm. Lithog.; 
Blyth, J. A. S.B. xvi. p. 732; M. aureus, Is. Geoff., Arch. Mus. torn. ii. p. 566, 
Belanger's Voyage, Atlas, f. 2, golden rufous variety ; Cercopithecus cynosurus apud Heifer. 
Myouk-ta-nya, Arakan. 

Two mounted skins of the Crab-eating Monkey in the British Museum, 
erroneously marked from "India," represent the Burmese type, very inferior 
in colour, without any yellowish tinge, and having no trace of crest on the 
vertex ; the face blackish in the living animal, with strongly contrasting white 
eye-lids, as in the African Monkeys known as Mangabeys. As seen alive 
together with the ordinary crested race of the Malayan peninsula and islands 
(Aigrette of Buffon, Simia aigula, L., S. fascicularis, Raffles, M. cristatus, 
Gray, founded on an albino!), there is considerable contrast of appearance, 
although the skulls are not distinguishable ; § the face of the latter is much 
less dark, and the colouring of the upper parts is mostly yellowish. The 
Philippine race (M. palpebrosus, Is. Geoff.) resembles it, but is considerably 
darker in hue ; and a living specimen received from Siam in the London 
Zoological Gardens is like the Philippine race, but with the face as pale as in 
31. radiatus of Southern India. Another monkey of the kind recently examined, 

* P. Z. S. 1872, pp. 204, 495, and pi. xxiv. f ibid. 1839, p. 31. 

X Recherches sur les Mammiferes, p. 244, plates 34, 35. 

§ The skulls of two adults from Arakan are described in J. A. S. B. vol. xiii. p. 474. 



Mammals of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



from an unknown locality, is brightly tinged with yellowish above, but has 
no trace of crest on vertex, the hair of the crown lying very flat, and the 
face is but slightly infuscated. M. carbonarius, F. Cuv., is asserted to be from 
Sumatra; and upon a casual individual variety from Pegu M. Is. Geoffroy 
founded his M. aureus, which he elsewhere states to inhabit Sumatra and 
" vraisemblement Java." Moreover, according to M. Belanger, the orange- 
coloured M. aureus is commonly to be purchased in Calcutta, which decidedly 
is not the case. Major Berdmore sent the skin of a young example of the 
same occasional variety from Mergui; but it can be safely asserted that 
there is no established race of such a colour, like the Patas monkey, Cer- 
copithecus ruber, of Abyssinia. 31. philippinensis , Is. Geoff.,* is founded on 
a crestless albino, which has assuredly no claim to be regarded as a peculiar 
species. Another figure of a mature albino given by Crawfurd in his 
" Embassy to Siam and Cochin-China," one of a couple of such animals 
he saw at Bangkok, well represents the Burmese race without a trace of top- 
knot. The Monkeys of this type are so commonly conveyed about from port 
to port, not only in European but in native vessels, that erroneous localities 
are apt to be assigned to specimens; but it is certain that no long-tailed 
Monkey of the group with fully haired forehead inhabits the region westward 
of the Bay of Bengal. How far northward of Akyab the 31. cynomolgm 
extends its range has yet to be ascertained, but it may be safely averred that 
there is no such animal in the Bengal Sundarbans. The corresponding 
Indian sub-type, exemplified by 31. radiatus of S. India, brown with pale 
face, and M. pileatus of Ceylon, rufous with dark face, has a semi-nude 
forehead and longish hair on crown radiating from a centre. This sub-type 
does not occur eastward of the Bay of Bengal, though a living specimen 
of 31. radiatus was sent from Formosa by Mr. Swinhoe,f who then— mis- 
taking it for his subsequently described Inuus cydopis— believed that it 
inhabited the camphor forests of the interior of that island. In his "Catalogue 
of the Mammals of China, inclusive of those of Formosa,"* he makes\o 
reference to such a species. Upon certain of the Nicobar Islands the Aigrette 
Monkey has been probably introduced, as, according to the Abbe de la 
Caille, it was in the Mauritius by the Portuguese. There it had become 
numerous in the last century, and its habits, in a state of freedom, as observed 
upon that island, are described in Grant's "History of the Mauritius," 
published in 1801. In all probability the present Philippine race is not 
indigenous to that great archipelago. 
* Arch, du Museum, ii. p. 568, t. 33. 
t J. A. S. B. xxk. note to p. 88. + p. z. S. 1870, p. 615. 



1875.] 



Long-tailed Monkeys. 



9 



Fam. Colobidse. 

Long-tailed Monkeys, which have no cheek-pouches, the stomach sacculated, and 

which subsist to a considerable extent on green foliage. 
*6. Peesbytes ceistatus. 

Simla cristata, Raffles ; Semnopithecus pruinosus, Desmarest; S.phayrei, Blyth, J.A.S.B. 
xvi. p. 733 ; 8. argentatus, Bl., MS., Horsfield's Catalogue, No. 8. MyouJc-huyo, Arakan. 
The Silvery-leaf Monkey inhabits Arakan, Tenasserim provinces, 
Malayan peninsula, Sumatra, Banka, and Borneo. 

Of a somewhat glistening or silvery dark ash colour, with white under- 
pays ; a conspicuous crest on the vertex, and long whisker-tufts, which 
conceal the ears on a front view; face leaden black, contrasting with 
pinkish flesh colour on the mouth and lips, extending to the lining of the 
nostrils, besides which a large semi-circular mark of a paler and more 
livid tint occupies the inner half of each orbit. Three small living young 
sent from Eamri Island by Captain J. R. Abbott were quite similar in 
colouring to the adults, showing no trace whatever of rufous; but 
P. cristatus is described to have the young bright rufous, as in some of the 
allied species, and certainly the figure assigned to the young of P. cristatus 
in the great Dutch work by Professor Temminck and Dr. S. Muller, repre- 
sented of a rufous colour, and with ears conspicuously visible on a front 
view of the face, can hardly refer to the Arakan species, which neverthe- 
less appears to be true P. cristatus. Writing of P. obscurus and P. melanopus 
(P. albo-cinereus apud Schinz), in the Malayan peninsula, Dr. Cantor remarks 
that "both attain to the same size, have in common the shape of the body, 
the white marks on the face, and the general distribution of colour;" 
while of P. cristatus he states that "the whitish colour on the eyes and 
mouth is present, though less distinct than in the preceding two species."* 
Those markings, however, could not be more conspicuously so than in the 
three young examples from Ramri already noticed, one of which is now 
mounted in the India Museum, London. 

A species is referred to P. albocinereus by Dr. Anderson, as being 
" common on the banks of the Tapeng;" f and P. albocinereus of the Malayan 
peninsula apud Schinz and Cantor must bear the name P. melanopus, Geoff. 
{Semnopithecus siamensis, S. M tiller, = & nigrimanus, Is. Geoffroy, = S. 
cinereus, Gray, and the young S. dorsatus, Waterhouse). It occurs commonly 
in collections from Malacca, and as it has been received from Siam, it is 
likely to occur in the Tenasserim provinces. One distinguishing character 
* J. A. S. B. xv. p. 175. f " Report of Expedition," etc., p. 271. 



10 



Mammals of Burma* 



[No. 1, 



of it is that it has two lateral radiating centres of hair upon the crown, the 
hair meeting and being pressed upwards between them. The small young 
resemble the adults, excepting that their colours are more strongly 
contrasted. 

7. Pbesbytes obscuiuts. 

Semnopithecus obscurus, Eeid, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 14; S. leucomystax, Tern.; Simia 
maura apud Raffles ; 8. albocinereus, Is. Geoffroy ; 8. halonifer, Cantor ; probably 
8. maurus apud Heifer; ? 8. sumatranus> S. M uller, apud Schinz; 8. cristatus in the Atlas 
to " Voyage au pole sud," t. 3. Myook-myet-gwen-phyoo (Mason). 

The Dusky-leaf Monkey is the most common species of the genus in 
the Malayan peninsula, from which its range extends at least to the province 
of Mergui, where it was obtained by the late Major Berdmore. It has also been 
received from Siam, and is likewise an inhabitant of Sumatra, if not also of 
Borneo. The adults are blackish, with hair upon the nape lengthened and 
conspicuously whitish. The newly born young are of a vivid golden- 
ferruginous colour, which soon changes to dusky-ash, and is continued 
latest upon the tail.** This may be the species which Mason refers to as 
being " found, in considerable numbers, in the interior'' of the Tenasserim 
provinces; but, he adds, "it is not so numerous as the other Monkeys and 
the Gibbons." He also remarks that "the large flowers of the Dillenia y 
and many others, are much sought after by these monkeys as food." 

8. Pbesbytes chkysogastek. 

Semnopithecus chrysogaster, Lichtenstein ; 8. potenziani, C. L. Bonaparte, apud Peters, 
P. Z. S. 1866, p. 429. 

The mounted skins of an adult female and young, procured by Heifer 
somewhere in the Tenasserim provinces, are in the Berlin Museum. By 
the courtesy of Professor "W". Peters I have been favoured with coloured 
drawings of those specimens. The mature animal has the upper parts, 
limbs, and tail blackish, the hairs ferruginous on the basal half; slight 
band crossing the forehead, cheeks, front, throat, and front of neck, sullied 
white; rest of the lower parts deep and bright ferruginous, which tinges 
the inner side of the limbs; face colourless, or pinkish white. Young 
wholly pale ferruginous, somewhat darker on the hands and feet. There 
is a slight compressed crest on the vertex, but no distinct whisker-tufts, or 
lengthened hair on the nape. It is highly probable that some adults are 
wholly ferruginous, as happens with P. maurus in Java (the so-called S. 
pyrrhus, Horsf., = $. auratus, Geoff.), and with P. melalophus in Sumatra, 
* J. A. S. B. xvi. p. 734. 



1875.] 



Lemurs. 



11 



the so-called P. nobilis, Gray; while it is likely that there is a melanoid 
phase of P. rubicundus of Borneo.* 

Before seeing the coloured drawings sent by Professor Peters, I suspected 
that P. chrysog aster would prove identical with P. pileatus, Blyth,f which 
is common in the hills bordering on Sylhet and those of Tippera and 
Chittagong, and the old males of which are deeply tinged with ferruginous 
on the lower parts. Pemales and young have the lower parts white or but 
faintly tinged with ferruginous, and the rest of the coat is of a pure grey, 
the face black, and there is no crest, but the hairs of the crown are so 
disposed as to appear like a small flat cap laid upon the top of the head. 
The old males seem always to be of a deep rust colour on the cheeks, 
lower parts, and more or less on the outer side of the limbs; while in 
old females this rust colour is diluted or little more than indicated* A 
mature male which I possessed alive was an exceedingly gentle animal, 
and the species is akin to P. maurus of Java, though so different in colouring. 
It is likely to occur in the northern part of Arakan. 



9. Peesbytes baebei. 
Presbytes barbei, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi. p. 374. 

This species is closely allied to, if not identical with, P. femoralis, 
Horsfield (=P. chrysonielas, Tern.), of the Malayan peninsula and Sumatra, 
the female of which is figured of a brown colour by MM. Temminck and S. 
Muller ; but adults of both sexes described as P. lar bet, from skins, minus 
the skull, procured in the interior of the Tippera hills, were black. 
The colour is probably variable. According to Cantor, the face during 
life is intense black, except the white-haired lips and the chin, which are of 
a milk-white colour. It is another likely species to occur in the Indo- 
Chinese region; and from the Malayan peninsula Dr. Cantor gives four 
species of this genus, viz. P. cristatus, P. femoralis, P. obscurus, and 
P. melanosis ; while the remarkable and very handsome P. nemceus was 
observed plentifully in Cochin-China by Crawfurd, whence also has lately 
been described and figured P. nigripes, Ad. Milne-Edwards. £ M. Milne- 
Edwards, jnn., has also figured and described BMnopithecus roxettana, a 
very remarkable animal of this group from the same forests of Eastern 
Tibet as are inhabited by Macacus tibetanus. 

* In the Calcutta Museum there is a brown specimen of the common P. cephalopteras 
of Ceylon. 

t J. A. S. B. xii. p. 174, xiii. p. 467, xvi. p. 735. 
X Nouy. Arch, du Mus., torn, yi., Bulletin p. 7, t. 1. 



12 



Mammals of Burma. 



pro. 1, 






Sub-order LEMURIA. 

Fam. Nycticebidee. 

*10. JNycticebtts taedigkadus (J. 10). 

Nyceticebus tardigradus, F. Cuv., N. bengalensis, Geoffroy; "Sloth" of Anglo-Indians, 
and doubtless, therefore, "the little Uradypus" of Heifer.* MyouJc-moung-ma, "Monkey's 
concubine," Mason. 

The Slow Loris is generally diffused, but from its habits not much 
observed. The range of this genus extends to Eastern Bengal, and I have 
been assured, on good authority, that it inhabits the island of Preparis, 
though it has not been met with either in the Andaman or JSTicobar Islands. 
Yosmaer's figure (1770) of his " Bengaalschen Luiaard" very well represents 
the race inhabiting Sylhet and Arakan. In Malacca it is more deeply 
coloured; and M. Ad. Milne-Edwards separates that of Siam and Cochin- 
China by the name N. cinereus.j 

Sub-order PLEUROPTERA. 
Fam. Galseopitliecidse. 
11. Gal^opithectts volans. 
Lemur volans, L. ; Vespertilio admirabilis^ Bontius ; figured in Marsden's " History of 
Sumatra," pi. ix. MyooTe-hloimg-pyau, i.e. embryo-monkey flying, Mason. 

The range of the Cobego, a very remarkable but common Malayan 
animal, extends certainly to Mergui, where skins of it were procured by 
Major Berdmore ; but Mr. Dunn states that he possessed a living specimen 
that was obtained about one hundred miles up the Koladyne river, which 
flows from the North into Akyab harbour! He was moreover positive 
about the correctness of the identification.^: According to Sir T. Stamford 
Raffles, writing in 1820, "this animal, the leuhurg of the Malays, is too 
well known to require description. It usually hangs from the branch of 

a tree suspended by its four hands Mr. Marsden's figure gives a 

very good idea of this animal."§ Mr. Wallace remarks that "it is 
sluggish in its motions, at least by day, going up a tree by short runs of 
a few feet, and then stopping a moment as if the action was difficult. 
It rests during the day, clinging to the trunks of trees, where its olive or 
brown fur, mottled with irregular whitish spots and blotches, resembles 
closely the colour of mottled bark, and no doubt helps to protect it. Once 

* J. A. S. B. vii. p. 859. 

t Ann. Sc. Nat. 1837, vii. p. 161, Nouv. Arch, de Museum, iii. Bulletin p. 9, pi. 3. 

1 P. Z. S. 1863, p. 370. § Tr. Lin. Soc. xiii. p. 248. 



1875.] Flying Lemur. 13 

in a bright twilight," he adds, "I saw one of these animals run up a 
trunk in a rather open space, and then glide obliquely through the air to 
another tree, on which it alighted near its base, and immediately began to 
ascend. I paced the distance from one tree to the other, and found it to 
be seventy yards ; and the amount of descent at not more than thirty-five 
or forty feet, or less than one in five. This I think proves that the 
animal must have some power of guiding itself through the air ; otherwise 
in so long a distance it would have little chance of alighting exactly 
upon the trunk. Like the Cuseus of the Moluccas, the Galceopithecus feeds 
chiefly on leaves, and possesses a very voluminous stomach and long con- 
voluted intestines. The brain is very small, and the animal possesses such 
remarkable tenacity of life, that it is exceedingly difficult to kill it by any 
ordinary means. The tail is prehensile, and is probably made use of as an 
additional support when feeding. It is said to have only a single young 
one at a time, and my own observation confirms this statement, for I once 
shot a female, with a very small blind and naked little creature clinging 
closely to its breast, which was quite bare and much wrinkled, reminding 
me of the young of marsupials, to which it seemed to form a transition. 
On the back, and extending over the limbs and membrane, the fur of these 
animals is short, but exquisitely soft, resembling in its texture that of the 
Chinchilla."* Eaffl.es, however, states that it produces two young at a 
time, and Mr. A. Adams, who accompanied Sir E. Belcher in the exploring 
voyage of H.M.S. " Samarang," found two young in one which he dissected. 
He observed this animal "both in Borneo and Basilan in a wild state. It 
is crepuscular," he adds, "and hangs suspended during the day to the 
under surface of boughs in the tops of high trees. "When it moves, it seems 
to shuffle and scramble among the leaves, and sometimes drops suddenly 
from its elevated position. It feeds on leaves, and the stomach of one I 
examined was filled with the remains of the foliage of Artocarpus and 
other trees. At Sarawak I had a living Cobego in my possession, which 
was procured on the occasion of felling some trees, in the top of one of 
which the animal was suspended. It was very inactive on the ground, 
and did not attempt to bite or resist."! "In several shot on the hill at 
Pinang," remarks Dr. Cantor, "the stomach" contained vegetable matter, 
but no remains of insects. In confinement, plantains constitute the 
favourite food, but deprived of liberty the animal soon pines and dies." J 



* "Wallace's "Travels in the Malay Archipelago," vol. i. p. 135. 
t Notes, etc. (1848), p. 265. % J. A. S. B. xv. p. 178. 




14 



Mammals of Burma. 



[No. 1, 




According to Horsfield, the Cobego " lives entirely on young fruits and 
leaves ; those of the cocoa-nut and of Bombax pentandrum are its favourite 
food, and it commits great injury to the plantations of these, which surround 
the Tillages of the natives" of Java. In that island it is "confined to 
particular districts, where it is met with chiefly on isolated hills, covered 
with a fertile soil, and abounding with young luxuriant trees, the branches 
of which afford it a safe concealment during the day. As the evening 
approaches, it leaves its retreat, and is seen in considerable numbers making 
oblique leaps from one tree to another ; it also discovers itself by a croaking, 
harsh, disagreeable noise. If an individual is forced from its usual abode, 
it advances by slight awkward leaps, until it meets with an object on which 
it can ascend by its claws. " 

This animal occurs in Siam, and is probably far from rare in the valley 
of the Tenasserim river. By some zoologists it is referred to the order or 
sub-order Insectivora ; although, it would seem, to no extent an insect-eater, 
according to all trustworthy observation. 



Order CHIROPTERA. 

Tribe HARPYDIA. 

Harpies or Koussettes ; Frugivorous Bats which do riot hybernate, and are peculiar 
to warm climates. They have no American representatives. 

Fam. Pteropodidse. 

*12. Pteboptts medius (J. 12). 

Pteropus medius, Temminck, Monog.i.p. 176; Pteropus edwardsii, Geoffroy, Ann. Mus. 
xv. p. 192 partim, apud Peters. Zen-hwai or Len-wet, Mason. 

The common Indian Roussette, or "Flying-fox." 

Some of the larger species of this genus are by no means well defined 
apart, if really differing to an extent which should be regarded as specific. 
Prof. Peters has elaborately monographed the genus Pteropus* and subse- 
quently the rest of the family, f of which he recognizes ten genera. He admits 
twenty-six species, with two sub-species, of Pteropus as then known to him. 
The ordinary Indo-Chinese Roussette is the same as the Indian one, and 
wherever found varies to some extent in colouring, the back being more or less 

* "Berieht der Akademie zu Berlin," May 27th, 1867. 
f ibid. Dec. 19th, 1867. 



; 



Frugivorous Bats. 



15 



pale and the lower-parts more or less suffused with black or wholly fulvous ; 
but in the Southern Tenasserim provinces it seems to grade into the more 
deeply-coloured P. edulis of Peron and Lesueur, as figured in Horsfield's 
"Zoological Eesearches in Java," which is recognized as distinct by Professor 
Peters, who refers to it P. edulis et javanicus, Desm., P. edulis, funereus, et 
pluto, Tern., P. nicoharicus* and Pachysomia giganteum, Pitzinger. It is 
probable, therefore, that the latter, if truly distinct, should be recognized as 
an inhabitant of the Tenasserim provinces ; but I suspect that it will be 
found to grade into the other. 

13. Cynoistyctebis amplexicattdata (J. 13)* 
Pteropus amplexicaudatus, Geoff., Ann. and Mus. xv. p. 96 ; Peters, in P. Z. S. 1871, 
p. 513; P. leschenaultii, Desmarest; P. seminudus, Kelaart. 

Tenasserim provinces, Siam, Amoy, Formosa, S. India and Ceylon, 
Malay countries to Timor, Moluccas, Philippines. 

14* EoiSTYCTEEIS SPEL^A. 

Eonycteris spelcea, Dobson, Journ. As. Soc. B. 1873, p. 204; Macroglossus spelaus, 
Dobson, J. A. S.'B. xl. pi. x. fig. 3, 4, p. 261. 

Tenasserim, Siam. 
The habit of resorting to caves implied by the specific name of this 
kiodote has not, that I am aware of, been previously remarked of any of 
the family, but is likely to be common to sundry of the smaller Ptero- 
podid®. [Specimens of Cynonyeteris amplexicaudata have since been obtained 
by Mr. W. T. Blanford, in the Nemakdun Salt Caves, Kishm Island, in the 
Persian Gulf.] f 

[15. MaCKOOLOSSFS MOTIMTTS. 

Steropus minimus, Geoff. Ann. du Mus. xv, p. 96 (1810) ; Steropus rostratus, Horsf. 
Zool. Kesearch. in Java (1825) ; Macroglossus minimus, Temminck, Monogr. Mammal, ii. 
p. 96 ; Horsf. Cat. Mamm. Mus. E. I. Comp. p. 29 ; Blyth, Cat. Mamm. Mus. As. Soc. 
Beng. No. 57; Dobson, J. A. S. B. 1873, p. 205. 

A specimen in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, was obtained by Major 
Berdmore in 1858, in the valley of the Sitang river, Tenasserim province. 
This, the smallest species of frugivorous bat, has a rather wide distribution, 
extending from the Himalaya to North Australia.] 

* [Pteropus nicobaricus, Dobson, J. A. S. B. 1873, p. 198. Quite distinct from both 
P. edulis and _P. medius.— G.E.D.j 

t [Dobson in P. A. S. B. May, 1873, p. 110.] 



16 



Mammals of Burma. 



1 



^16. Cyitopteeus makginatus (J. 14). 
Vespertilio marginatus^ B. H. 

A common and very generally diffused species, inhabiting, it would 
seem, everywhere that bananas grow in S.E. Asia and its islands. 

Its flight is particularly light and buoyant, and is performed by rapid 
movement of the wings, as it hovers around a fruit-tree, being quite unlike 
the slow winnowing motion of the wings of the larger " Flying-foxes/' 
Eoth, however, travel to vast distances in the course of a night's foraging.*' 
The neck and sides of this Bat are often strongly tinged with bright 
ferruginous, which would appear to indicate full maturity, f It is an ex- 
traordinarily voracious feeder, and will devour more than its own weight 
at a meal, voiding its food apparently but little changed while still slowly 
munching away. Of the guava, though a soft mellow fruit, it swallows 
only the juice, opening and closing its jaws very leisurely in the act of 
mastication, and rejecting the residue. A pair have now been living for 
some time, and have reared a young one, in the London Zoological Gardens, 
where also the larger species of this family thrive and propagate freely. A 
species from the Andamans is described as C. Ir achy soma ^ Dobson. \ 



Tribe SPECTEA. 
Insectivorous Bats chiefly, which hybernate where the temperature is low. Len-no, Mason. 

Sub-tribe Pachyuea, 

Thick-tailed Bats ; the tail more or less protrusile and sheathing within the interfemoral 
membrane ; the wings long and narrow, and contracting with a double flexure. 

Fam. NoetilionideD* 

Thick-tailed Bats. 

17. Taphozous tkeobaldi. 
Taphozous theobaldi, Dobson, P. A, S. B, 1872, p. 152 ; T. saccolaimus of Burma, 



passim. 



Tenasserim provinces. 



• vide Hutton, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 693. 

f [I have observed this in adult females only, and believe it to be a secondary sexual 
character, like the epaulets in Epomophorus. — G.E.D.] 
% J. A. S. B. xl. p. 260, 



1875.] 



Insectivorous Bats. 



17 



18. T. L01TOIMANTIS (J. 31). 

Taphozous longimanus, Hardw. Trans. Lin. Soc. vol. xiv. tab. xvii. p. 525. 

Kangoon. 

This animal is pale fulvescent when young, and becomes gradually 
blacker with age ; the very old being somewhat of a deep black, but with 
base of fur white. 

19. T. MELAKOPOGO^ (J. 32). 
T. melanopogon, Tern. 

[The Indian Museum possesses a specimen of an adult male of this 
species (with the characteristic black beard well developed), received from 
Amherst, in Lower Burma.] 

Other species are sure to occur in Burma, and very probably the Cheiro- 
meles torquatus, Horsfield, a large naked bat akin to Taphozous, with a narrow 
collar of hair, and the pollux somewhat opposable, which was procured by 
Finlayson in Siam, and also inhabits Malacca, Borneo, and Java. It emits a 
highly offensive odour. Cheiromeles conducts to Nyctinomus (see Dysopes), 
and of this genus JV. plicatus may be confidently looked for, and to 
the south probably the darker race described as JV. tenuis, Horsfield, which 
occurs in the Malay Peninsula. Also Nyctinomus johorensis, Dobson,^ 
from Johore in the Malay Peninsula. Of a larger species, JV. insignis, 
Blyth,f which Mr. Swinhoe identifies with the African N. ruppellii, and 
which should therefore occur in other parts of Southern Asia, he remarks, 
"I have often, on a cloudless evening, at Amoy, seen these Bats flying 
along high in the air, being easily distinguished by the narrowness of their 
wings. "When irritated," he adds, " the creature has a habit of exposing its 
tail, and of sinking its eye into the socket and thrusting it out again. The 
membrane extending from the tail to the legs is wrinkled, and covers the 
tail like a glove, so as to slip up or down as the creature wishes to expand 
or contract its interfemoral wing, or, in nautical language, to shake out or 
take in reefs. "J In Taphozous the tail withdraws entirely within the 
membrane. § [I have compared the specimen labelled N. insignis in the 



* P. A. S. B. Jan. 1873, pp. 22, 23; Nyctinomus (Chserephou) johorensis, J. A. S. B. 
1874, p. 144. 

t Cat. Mam. Mus. As. Soc. Bengl. No 87. 

% P. Z. S. 1870, p. 619-690. 

§ A classification of the genera of Chiroptera, by Prof. W. Peters, is published in 
the Monatsbericht der Konigl. Alcademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, May 22nd, 1865, 

2 



r m 



18 



Mammals of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



Indian Museum, Calcutta, with N. cestonii, Savi, of Southern Europe, and 
can find no difference whatever. That specimen was sent from Amoy by- 
Mr. Swinhoe, and may therefore be safely assumed to be identical with 
the specimen referred by him to N. ruppellii. — Gr.E.D.] 

[Mr. Elyth has followed the example of other Zoologists in placing 
Rhinopoma next Megaderma. Although connected with Megaderma through 
Nycteris, I believe that this genus is much more allied to Taphozous, and 
should therefore be classed with the Noctilionida. — G.E.D.] * 



Sub-tribe Leptura. 

Bats with ample wings, which contract with double flexure ; the tail (when present) slender 
and fixed in the interfemoral membrane. 



Fam. Megadermatidee. 
20. Rhinopoma haedwickii (J. 30). 
Ehinopoma hardwickii, Gray. 
India, Indo-Chinese, and Malayan countries. 



p. 256. In this classification his fifth family, Brachyuua, comprises Mysticina, Noctilio 
Taphozous, Emballonura, Biclidurus, and Furia; and his sixth family, MoLossi,is composed 
of Molossus (seu Nyctinomus) and Cheiromeles. They seem to range better as two sub- 
families of Noctilionidce, Cheiromeles having so much affinity with Taphozous. Prof. Peters 
recognizes in all six families of Bats, which are named by him as follow:— 1. Pteropi = 
Fteropodidce.—2. Megadermata = Megadermatidce (comprising Ehinopoma, Megaderma, 
Nycteris, and Nyctophilus, all foreign to America).— 3. Khinolophi = Ehinolophidce (also 
foreign to America).— 4. Vampyri = Vampyridce (with four subfamilies, exclusively 
American).— 5. Brachyura.— 6. Molossi.— 7. Vespertiliones = Vespertilionidce (with 
fourteen genera). In Bericht der Akademie zu Berlin, 1871, p. 301 et seq., the same 
zoologist has supplied a monograph of the Ehinolophidce, in which he recognizes twenty-nine 
species of Ehinolophus, twenty-four of Fhyllorhina, and as a third genus only one known 
species, the Ccelops Frithii, nobis. 

* [I do not agree with the author in placing Rhinopoma in the same family with Mega- 
derma. Ehinopoma is, in my opinion, closely related to Taphozous. Its connexion with 
that genus is shown in the peculiar frontal depression, in the projecting muzzle and valvular 
nostrils, in the weak and deciduous upper incisors, in the form and folding of the wing, in 
the production of the tail beyond the interfemoral membrane, and even in the microscopical 
structure of the hair. Further, the species of these genera show remarkable similarity in 
their habits, and in them an enormous deposit of fat is heaped up about the root of the 
tail immediately before the hybernating season. Similar deposits of fat have not been 
observed by me in any other genera of Chiroptera.— G.E.D.] 



1875.] 



Insectivorous Bats. 



19 



21. Megadebma spasma. 
Megaderma spasma, L. ; M. horsfteldi, Blyth, Catal. No. 60 ; Horsfield's Catal. No. 39. 

Tenasserim provinces. 

The true M. spasma inhabits Ceylon and the Malayan countries generally ; 
and the Indian M. lyra can hardly but occur in Arakan and Pegu, as it has 
been obtained at Amoy and in Formosa. The Bats of this genus are highly 
predatory, and Col. McMaster records that at Eangoon one killed on suc- 
cessive occasions two canary-birds. Nycteris javanica, Geoff., inhabits the 
Malayan peninsula, and should be looked for in the Tenasserim provinces. 



Fam. Uliinolopliidse. 

Sub-fam. Ehinolophina. 

Horse-shoe Bats. 

22. Rhinolophus ccelophylltts. 

Rhinolophus ccelophyllus, Peters, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1866, p. 426, and pi. 35. 
Obtained by the late Lieut. Beavan in the valley of the Sal ween. 

23. E. LUCTTJS (J. 17). 
Rhinolophus luctus, Temminck. 

Indo-Chinese and Malayan countries, India (to lower region of the 
Himalaya), China, Philippines. 

According to Captain Hutton, "this fine species commences its flight 
rather early in the evening, and does not soar high, like the smaller 
Bats in general, but remains below at about from twenty to thirty feet 
from the ground, wheeling with a somewhat heavy and noiseless flight 
around buildings and large trees in search of beetles and other insects. 
Indeed," he adds, " I think it may be truly said of all the larger species 
of" insect-eating "Bats, that they hawk for prey in the lower regions 
of the atmosphere, while nearly all 'the smaller ones ascend; and the 
reason is, that while the flies and minute insects are in the higher regions, 
the large beetles and other large insects, of which the smaller Bats could 
make no use, are found below among the branches of the trees. R. luctus 
appears usually to dwell in pairs, and does not associate in communities like 
some of the smaller species of its genus — though in a large cavern, affording 
ample room for them to dwell apart, several pairs may sometimes be found. 
I have taken them from the roofs of outhouses, and in wide caves in limestone 
rocks; but they appear to fly only in the warmer months of summer, 



20 



Mammals of Burma. 



[*<>. 1, 



remaining (at least such is the case at Masuri) in a semi-torpid state 
during the winter. It is possible, however, that in the warmer south-eastern 
climates of Sikhim and the Khisia hills they may be active likewise in the 
winter," as where winter is unknown.* 

24. E. AFFINIS (J. 21). 
Ehinolophus affinis, Horsfield, Zool. Res. Java, pi. 8, fig. a. b. 

Indo-Chinese and Malayan countries; also Malabar and Ceylon, and 
not uncommon at Masuri, at an elevation of about 5000 to 6000 feet.f 

"Like the preceding" (R. luetus), remarks Capt. T. Hutton, "this 
species is early on the wing, and may be seen in the evening twilight 
coursing slowly round the trees in search of insects, crunching the hard- 
winged beetles as it flies, with a sharp crackling sound. It flies so low as 
to be easily caught in a common butterfly net." 

25. E. eouxi (J. 22). 

Ehinolophus rouxi, Temminek, Monog. ii. p. 306. 
India, with Ceylon; Indo-Chinese countries; China. 

26. E. PUSILLUS. 

Ehinolophus pusillus, Temminek; B. pusillus, Dobson, Proc. As. Soc. B. 1872, p. 155. 

Burma. 

As a matter of course, other species remain to be observed. R, minor, 
Horsf., originally described from Java and common in the Malay countries, 
is also common at Masuri, at from 4000 to 6500 feet elevation.]: 



Sub-fam. Phyllorhinina. 
27. Phyllokhina diadema. 

Ehinolophus diadema, Geoff.; Peters, in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1866, p. 426; E. nolilis, 
Horsfield, also Cantor ; Hipposideros lankadiva, Kelaart. 

Indo-Chinese and Malayan countries, Moluccas and Philippines, Ceylon. 

The allied P. armiger, Hodgson, H. diadema apud Cantor, nee GeofFroy, 
and H. swinhoii, Peters, olim, must needs also occur, as it inhabits the Lower 
Himalaya, Ceylon, Malacca, and S. China (Amoy). Hutton remarks of it 
that, "like Ehinolophus affinis, this species may frequently be heard during 
its flight cracking and crunching the hard wings of beetles, which in the 



P. Z. S. 1872, p. 695. f Hutton, I.e. p. 696. + Hutton, I.e. p. 



698. 



1075.] 



Insectivorous Bats. 



21 



evening hours are usually abundant among the trees. The teeth are strong, 
and the tout-ensemble of its aspect is not unlike that of a bull-dog."* 

[28. P. MASOKL 
Fhyllorhina masoni, Dobson, J. A. S. B. 1872, p. 338. 

This fine species, very similar to P. diaderna, but differing from it in 
the form of the concave front surface of the transverse nose-leaf, which 
is divided into two cells only by a single central longitudinal ridge, has been 
found at Moulmain, and the single type specimen is in the Indian Museum, 
Calcutta. Closely allied to it, but much smaller, is P. nicolaremis, Dobson, 
from the Mcobars.f] 

[29. P. LAEVATA. 
Fhyllorhina larvata, Horsfield ; Zool. Researches in Java. 
Prome, Burma.! 
Extremely variable in the colour of the fur.] 

[30. P. speoeis (J. 26). 

Vespertilio speoris, Schreb. Saugeth. Suppl. Atlas. ) 

A specimen of this species was found by me among several specimens 
of P. larvata collected by Dr. Anderson at Prome, Burma, during the first 
expedition to Yunan. — G.E.D.] § 

31. P. BICOLOK. 
Fhinolophus bieolor, Temminck, Monog. ii. p. 18, t. 32, fig. 9, 10; Hipposideros fulvus, 
Gray, Peters, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1871, p. 513, vide Dobson in P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 155. 

P. licolor inhabits the Malayan countries and Philippines, and was 
obtained by Hutton in the Deyra Boon and hills up to 5500 feet. 

According to Mr. Dobson, the golden-coloured specimens examined proved 
to be pregnant females exclusively. Examples so coloured occur in several 
species both of Rhinolophus and Phyllorhina. |] 



* vide P. Z. S. 1872, p. 701. f [J. A. S. B. 1871, p. 263.] 

% [vide Dobson in P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 155.] 

§ [The specimens preserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, corresponding to Catal. 
no. 77 (old coll.), are undoubtedly examples of P. larvata, Horsf. — G.E.D.] 

|| Cantor remarks, of two individuals of Fhinolophus affinis, " the male is reddish- 
brown above, light greyish brown beneath ; the female is above golden-fulvous, which 
becomes lighter on the lower-parts." — J. A. S. B. xv. p. 181. 



22 



Mammals of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



Others doubtless remain to be discovered in the Indo-Chinese countries, 
inclusive of Calops frithii (J. 29). 

32. ASELLIA STOLICZKANA. 

Asettia stoZiczkana, Dobson ; P. A. S. B. May, 1871, p. 106 ; J. A. S. B. vol. xl. p. 263 • 
Phyttorhim trifida, Peters ; P. Z. S. June, 1871, p. 513. 

Specimens were obtained by Dr. F. Stoliczka and Mr. F. Day at Penang. 



Fam. Vespertilionidae. 
Ordinary Bats. 

*33. Nycticejus luteus (J. 43). 

Nycticejus luteus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. vol. xx. p. 157 ; Scotophilus heathii, apud 
Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 619. 

Arakan, and probably the rest of British Burma, unless far to the south- 
ward. " Yery common in Canton in April and May." * 

*34. N. temminckii (J. 44). 

Vespertilio temminckii, Horsfield. 

Generally diffused, except probably at high elevations. One of the most 
abundant of Bats throughout India up to the base of the Himalaya, as well 
as in the Indo-Chinese and Malayan countries, and the South of China. 

35. N. CASTANEUS (J. 45). 
Nycticejus castaneus, Gray. 

This species or race, which merely differs from the last in having the 
under-parts nearly or quite as deeply coloured as the upper-parts, has been 
obtained at Dacca, although chiefly a Malayan race or variety. Jerdon 
refers to it as inhabiting Burma. Others are likely to occur, especially of 
small size, and not improbably the large and singularly adorned JY. omatus' 
which has been received from the Khasia hills. 

[I believe both N. luteus and JSF. castaneus are synonyms of iV. temminckii. 
N. luteus is the perfectly adult N. temminckii. No difference whatever, 
except size, can be found on comparing recent specimens and skeletons. 
Specimens of iV. ornatus, Blyth, were obtained by Dr. Anderson in the 
Kakhyen Hills, Yunan.— G.E.D.] 

* Swinhoe, I.e., vide also Hutton, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 706. 



1875.] 



Insectivorous Bats. 



23 



*36. Vespektjgo imbhicatus. 

Vespertilio imbrieatus, Horsfleld; " young probably V. abramus, Tern., and V. lobatus, 
Gray; probably adult of V. coromandelianus, F. Cuv., r Dobson, in P. A. S. B. 1872' 
p. 156).* 

A minute species, about the commonest and most generally diffused 
of Eats from the base of the Himalaya to Ceylon, as likewise in the Indo- 
Chinese and Malayan countries, and the South of China. It has also been 
recorded from Persia.f When disturbed in a room its flight is so exceedingly 
rapid that it can hardly be followed by the sight. 

37. Tyloistycteris pachyptts. 

Vespertilio pachypus, Temk., Monog. Mamm. ; Scotophilus fulvidus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 
vol. xxviii. p. 293 ; Vesperus pachypus, Dobson, P. A. S. B. 1871, p. 212 ; Tylonycteris 
pachypus, Peters, Monatsb. Akad. Berl. 1872, p. 704. 

Tenasserim provinces. 

38. Kebivotjla pict a (J. 53). 
Vespertilio pictum, Pallas. 

This very beautifully coloured little Bat, as seen alive or quite fresh, 
occurs in British Burma, as in the adjacent parts of S.E. Asia. 

[*39. Yespehtilio hasseltxi. 

Vespertilio hasseltii, Temm. Monog. Mammal, ii. p. 225 ; Vesperugo hasseltii, Wagner, 
Suppl. Schreb. Saugeth. v. p. 740. 

This large-footed bat belonging to the same section of the genus 
(Subg. Leuconoe, Boie) as Vespertilio capaccini, Bonap., is readily dis- 
tinguished from all other allied species by the very small size of the second 
lower premolar and its position quite internal to the tooth-row. Dr. Peters, 
who first detected the presence of this small premolar, remarks that the 
species was long considered as Vesperugo on account of the supposed absence 
of this tooth. § Tenasserim province, Sumatra and Java.] 

40. Y. beedmohei. 

Myotis berdmorei, Blytb, J. A. S. B. xxviii. p. 293. 

A small species, akin to the European V. pipistrellus, obtained by the 
late Major Berdmore in the valley of the Sitang. u Of a dark fuscous hue, 

* Mr. Swinboe gives Vesperugo .abramus (etakokornuli), Tern., and V. imbricatus, Tern., 
as distinct, P. Z. S. 1870, p. 618. 

f J. A. S. B. xl. p. 461. t P. Z. S. 1872, p. 710. 

§ Monatsb. Berl. Akad. 1866. 



24 



Mammals of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



the fur slightly tipped with earthy-brown on the upper-parts, and much 
more largely with a paler (almost whitish) brown below ; membranes dusky. 
Length 3± in., of which tail 1^ in. ; expanse 9f in. ; fore-arm l^in.; ear- 
conch (posteriorly) % in. Three specimens (females). 

[This species must ever remain doubtful, for the types referred to above 
cannot be found in the Indian Museum collection. They were absent from 
the collection of the Asiatic Society when it was transferred to the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta. — G.E.D.] 

It need hardly be remarked that the foregoing is a meagre list of the 
Chiroptera which may reasonably be expected to inhabit the different pro- 
vinces of British Burma ; but it is a group which for various reasons is 
neglected by 'ordinary collectors, and one that to be investigated with 
tolerable success requires some special attention to be bestowed upon it. Only 
those zoologists who have made some study of the Bats can have an adequate 
idea of the multitudinous variety of them, not only as regards specific but 
very strongly marked divisional forms ; and exceedingly little is as yet known 
of the diversities of habit which must needs accompany so much variation in 
structure. 



Sub-order Carnivoea. 



Fam. Canidae. 
41. Canis eutilans (J. 137). 

Cants rutikns, Muller; vide Murie, on "Indian Wild Dogs," P. Z. S. 1872, p. 715 
et seq. Tau-khwae (Mason). 

The "Dhole" is generally diffused through the forests, but apparently 
not common anywhere ; it hunts in packs. 

A Burmese female in the People's Park, in Madras, " upwards of three 
years old," is stated by Col. McMaster to answer to Hodgson's description of 
the Budnm of Nipal, "except in her height, which cannot be more than 
seventeen or eighteen inches." In Malacca and Sumatra the race, 0. suma- 
trensis, Hardwicke, is smaller and deeper coloured, and the Tenasserim 
race is probably identical with it, whether or not so with that of India. 
In the latter there is considerable difference in the appearance of the 
animal according to season, the winter vesture being longer and paler in 
colouring, with the brush much more finely developed. This seasonal 
difference may well have given rise to some of the notions regarding a 
plurality of species. 



1875.] Carnivores — Dogs — Civets and Genets. 25 

*42. C. AIIEEUS. 

Canis aureus, Lin. ; Myae Ehwae (Mason). 

The Jackal is not uncommon at Akyab, and it has been shot in the 
vicinity of Prome, and at Thyetmyo; but in Arakan it has not passed the 
boundary of the JSTaf river. 

Fam. Viverridae* 

Sub-fam. Vivermn^ (Civets and Genets). 

*43. YlVEKEA ZIBETHA (J. 119). 

Viverra zibetha, Lin., S.N.T. 65 ; Kyoung-myen, Arakan. 

The Grey Civet is a widely diffused species, which, Mr. Swinhoe states, 
inhabit China from Hongkong to Shanghai, as also the Chusan Archipelago, 
and the island of Hainan. Dr. Cantor procured it in the Malayan peninsula, 
Province "Wellesley; and it inhabits Arakan, and probably is extensively 
diffused over the Indo-Chinese countries, as in Lower and Eastern Bengal, 
and the Tarai at the foot of the Eastern Himalaya. 

*44. Y. MEGASPILA. 

Viverra megaspila y Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxxi. p. 331 ; V. zibetha, apud Waterhouse, 
Cat. Zool. Soc. Mus. 1838, No. 252; V. tanggalunga, apud Cantor, J. A. S. B. xv. p. 197, 
nee apud Gray. Khyoung-myen, Mason. 

Large-spotted Civet. Of the same size as V. zibetha, with the body- 
markings large and black, and comparatively few in number, i.e. as com- 
pared with V. civettina of Malabar. I have seen flat skins of this 
animal from Prome, resembling those which Dr. Cantor procured in 
Province Wellesley, and one brought from Sumatra by Sir T. S. Raffles, 
which was formerly in the Museum of the Zoological Society in London. 
It is nearly allied to V. civettina of S. Malabar, but very different from 
V. tanggalunga, Gray, of the Malay countries, which is a much smaller 
animal, with more cat-like tail, and the spots of which are much smaller 
and more numerous. In the Philippine Islands it is probable that V. 
tanggalunga should be regarded as an introduced species. 

^45. YlVEKBICULA MALACCEKSIS (J. 121). 

Viverra malaccensis, Gmelin, S.N. 92. Wa-young-kyoung-bank, Arakan. Kyoung- 
ka-do, Mason. 

The Common Viverette. It is abundant in the Indo-Chinese countries, 
as in India, S. China, and the Malayan peninsula and islands. There is a 
nearly allied species in Madagascar. 



26 



Mammals of Burma. 



[>• 1, 



Sub-fam. Pabadoxuein2e (Musangs). 

*46. Paeaboxueus gkeayi (J. 124). 
Paradoxurus grayi, Bennet, P. Z. S. 1835, p. 118, 
Hill Musang. Inhabits the Arakan hills. 

*47. P. musawa (J. 123). 

Paradoxurus musanga, F. Cuv., Mamra. Lith. ii. t. 55. Kyowng-woon-bank, Arakan. 
Common Musang. As common as in the neighbouring countries. 

48. P. TEIVIEGATTIS. 
Paradoxurus trivirgatus, Temm. Monagr. ii. t. 63, fig. 1 ; Kyoung-na-ga, Mason. 
The three- streaked Musang inhabits Tenasserim provinces, Malayan 
peninsula, Sumatra, and Java. 

^49. P. LETJCOTIS. 

Paradoxurus leucotis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxvii. p. 274 ; Horsfield's Catal. Mamra. 
India House Mus., No. 66. JVa-zwet-phyoo, Arakan. 

The white-eared Musang inhabits Sylhet, Arakan, and Mergui.* 

*50. Aectictis biktueoistg (J. 126). 

Viverra binturong, Kaffles, Trans. Lin. Soc. xiii. p. 253. Myoule-kya, or " Monkey- 
tiger," Arakan. 

The Binturong inhabits the Mishmi hills, at the head of the valley 
of Assam, and occurs southward to the Straits of Singapore, and is also 
found in the islands of Sumatra and Java. Einlayson procured it in Siam. 



Fam. Herpestida^, 

Mungoose. 
^51. Ueva canceivoea (J. 134). 

Urva cancrivora, Hodgson, J. A. S. B. vol. vi. p. 561. Mwai-ba, Arakan. 
The crab-eating Mungoose is found in Nipal, the Khasia hills, Arakan, 
Pegu, E". Tenasserim, Vokien hills near Amoy (Swinhoe). It is the only 
representative of the Mungoose group in British Burma. 

* The species found in the Andaman Islands appears to be identical with P. leucotis, 
Blyth. It was, however, described as a new form by the late Lieut. -Col. Tytler, and 
named after himself as P. tytleri (J. A. S. B. 1864). 



1875.] 



Cats. 



27 



Fam. Felidae. 

Cats. 

52. Felis tigeis (J. 104). 

Felts tig r is, Lin. ; Tigris regulis, Gray, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 263. Kya, Arakan. 
The Tiger. Common in the forests. 

53. F. paedtjs (J. 105). 

Felis pardusj Lin.; Leopardus pardus, Gray, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 263. Theet-kya, 
Arakan. 

The Pard. Also common ; and black individuals not rare in the Southern 
Tenasserim provinces and Malayan peninsula. 

*54. F. maceocelxs (J. 107). 
Felis macrocelis, Temminck; F.diardi, F. Cuvier. 

The clouded Tiger-cat. A skin has been obtained in the mountains which 
separate Arakan from Pegu, and the species is probably of general occurrence 
in the higher mountain forests. Crawfurd noticed a dressed skin of it in the 
market at Bangkok. As the animal increases in age, its ground- hue 
becomes more fulvescent, and there is much individual variation in its 
markings. I have never seen it from the Malayan peninsula, but it in- 
habits Sumatra and Borneo, as likewise the Eastern Himalayas, and the 
islands of Formosa and Hainan; doubtless, therefore, the intervening 
countries generally in suitable localities. Hodgson notes it from Tibet ! 

55. F. VIVEEEmA (J. 108). 
Felis viverrina, Bennet, P. Z. S. 1833, p. 68. 

The fishing Tiger-cat. Tenasserim provinces, and probably the lowlands 
generally of British Burma ; also Camboja, S. China, Formosa, and all suit- 
able parts of India, with Ceylon. This animal has coarse fur, for a Felis, 
and chiefly inhabits low watery situations, where it preys much on fish. 

*56. F. TOTDATA (J. 110). 

Felis undata, Demarest. TheeUhyoung, Arakan. 

The Leopard-cat. Generally diffused. Specimens from Arakan and 
Tenasserim present the ordinary colours of Indian examples, with the 
body-markings resembling those of Genetta afra. Dr. Gray describes F. 
tenasserimensis* but I cannot perceive that the flat skin upon which this 
is founded differs from ordinary F. undata. 

* P. Z. S. 1867, p. 400. 



28 



Mammals of Burma. 



[No. I, 



m 



*57. E. chaus(J. 115). 
Felis chaus, Gildenst. Khyoung tsek-koon, Arakan. 

The Chaus. The author procured this species in Arakan, and Col. 
McMaster states that he " shot a very fine one in Burma." Egyptian 
specimens exhibited in the London Zoological Gardens do not differ in 
any respect, that I can perceive, from the common Indian species. 

Mason refers to a species about the size of a domestic cat, "but its 
•colour and markings are exactly those of a Tiger. These Cats," he adds, 
" are very abundant in the jungles, and occasionally venture into towns, 
where they make great havoc among the poultry." I could not well fail 
to have met with such a species, did it exist, and take leave to doubt that 
any small species of Cat is coloured and marked exactly like a Tiger. 
F. undata is doubtless intended, at least in part. 

Mason also refers to an animal which he denominates the " Fire-cat," 
or "Fire-tiger," of the Burmans. This is very probably F. ternminchii, 
Vigors (F. moormensis, Hodgson, and F. chrysothrix, Tern. MS.), which 
is found not only in Nipal and Assam, but in the Malayan peninsula 
and Sumatra, and therefore may be expected to occur in the intervening 
territory. It has been lately figured by Dr. Sclater.* 



Fam. Mustelidae. 
Sub-fam. Luteins (Otters). 
*58. Ltjtea naie (J. 100). 
Lutra nair, F. Cuv. Phyau, Arakan. 
Common on both sides of the Bay of Bengal. 

*59. AOSTYX LEPTOKYX (J. 102). 
Lutra leptonyx, Horsfield, Zool. Res. Java. 

Otter with minute claws. " Otters abound in some of the streams. 
In the upper part of the Tenasserim, a dozen at a time may be occasionally 
seen on the rocks of the river. The Burmese sometimes domesticate them, 
when they will follow a man like a dog" (Mason). f As common as the 
former species. 

* P. Z. S. 1867, pi. xxxvi. p. 816. 

f No animals are more difficult to determine than the species of Otter, from their general 
similarity, which may lead to over-hasty identification of them, and the neglect to note 
specific differences which appear on minute examination. The skulls generally afford good 
means of discrimination. 



1875.] 



Martens, Weasels and Badgers. 



29 



Sub-fam. Mustelinje (Martens, Weasels,* and Badgers). 
^60. Maetes flavigtjla (J. 96). 
Mustela flavigula, Boddaert. 

Black-capped Marten. Khasia hills and Arakan. 

Similar to Himalayan specimens, and differing from the Malayan race, 
found also in Formosa, by having much longer fur and a wholly black cap, 
instead of a brown cap with black periphery. 

*61. Helictis :ntpale^sis (J. 95). 

Gulo nipalensis, Hodgson, J. A. S. vol. v. p. 237 ; Melog ale per sonata, Is. Geoffroy. 
Kyoung-pyan (Mason). 

The Brock- weasel. Arakan, and common in Pegu. 

It is decidedly identical with the species inhabiting Mpal and Sylhet, 
if not also with H. orientalis (Horsf.) of Java; but distinct from H. mos- 
cftata, Gray, of S. China and Hainan, and IT. subaurantiaca, Swinhoe, of 
Formosa. Dr. Gray identifies Melogale per sonata, from the vicinity of Ban- 
goon, with the Chinese H. rnoschata, judging — it may be presumed — from 
the figure rather than the description in the Zoologie of M. Belanger's Voyage 
aux Indes Orient ales. f 

^62. Arctonyx collaeis (J. 93). 
Arctonyx collaris, F. Cuv., Mamm. Lith. iii. t. 60; Arctonyx isonyx, Hodgson. 
Khway-too-wet-too, Arakan; Khwae-tawet, wet-tawet (Mason). 

Large Burman Sand-badger. £ Inhabits Assam, Sylhet, and Arakan, 
and at least as far southward as the country bordering on the Sitang. An 
Arakan specimen is figured. § 

63. A. TAXOIDES. 
Arctonyx taxoides, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxii. p. 591. 

The small Burman Sand-badger is much smaller and better clad than the 
preceding, with the pig-like snout less developed. Both appear to have much 
the same geographic range. 

* The Mustela nudipes, F. Cuv., inhabits the mountains of the Malayan peninsula, 
Sumatra, and Java, and may therefore be looked for on those of the Tenasserim provinces. 

t P. Z. S. 1865, p. 153. 

I [In Jerdon's Mammals of India, the Hindustani Bhalu-soor, i.e. Bear-pig, is given as 
the native name of this animal ; but this seems to be an error, for the usual term applied to 
it is Bali-soor, which means Sand-pig, which is in consonance with its known habits. — J.A.] 

§ J. A. S. B. vol. vii. p. 735, pi. 



^w 



30 



Mammals of Burma. 



[STo. 1, 



Nearly allied is the My dam meliceps, Horsfield, of the higher mountains 
of the Malayan peninsula, Sumatra, and Java, which is likely also to inhabit 
those of the Tenasserim provinces. M. leptorhynchus* A. M. -Edwards, is 
described from N". China. 



Fam. XJrsid83. 



Bears. 



*64. Helaectos malayanus (J. 43). 

TJrsus malayanus, Raffles, F. Cuv. Mamm. Lithog. iii. t. 58. Wet-woon^ Arakan. 

The Sun Bear. This is the only Bear which inhabits British Burma, 
where it is diffused from Arakan to Mergui, and thence southward through- 
out the Malayan peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo ; the Bornean race, U. eury- 
spilus, Horsfield,f differing but slightly. How far northward of Arakan its 
range of distribution may extend, I am unaware ; but Ursus tihetanus, the 
common Black Bear of the forest region of the Himalaya, is the only Bear as 
yet determined from the hill ranges bordering on Assam, and this I believe to 
be the U. malayanus apud Walker ; J the same animal occurring likewise in 
S. China, and in the islands of Hainan (?) and Formosa. § In all probability 
the IT. malayanus is generally diffused over the great Indo-Chinese peninsula, 
where it especially inhabits the precipitous limestone mountains, and is there- 
fore difficult of access, from the tangled vegetation of the places to which it 
resorts. When brought up tame, it is an animal of gentle disposition, which 
will follow people about like a dog. I have seen one that suffered itself to be 
fondled by little children. " On one occasion/' writes Mason, while " sleep- 
ing in a Karen field that had been recently harvested, I was disturbed all night 
by a number of them digging up the roots of the sugar-cane that had been left 
in the field. They will occasionally attack man when alone, On descend- 
ing the Tenasserim a few years ago on rafts, the foremost raft passed over a 
rapid, and made short a turn into a little cove below, when a Bear from the 
shore made a plunge at the raft, and threw the two Karens on it into the 
water. At this moment the other boats came in sight, and the Bear retreated. 
On another occasion I met with a Burman and a Bear that he had just shot, and 
the Burman assured me that he had shot the Bear in the very act of running 
upon him. And last year," continues Mason, "a Karen of my acquaintance 
in Tonghoo was attacked by one, overcome, and left by the Bear for dead. 

* Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. v. torn. viii. p. 374, and Ann. M. N. H. (4), t. ii. p. 230. 
.f Zool. Journ. vol. i. pi. 7. 
t Calc. Journ. N. H. iii. p. 265. § P. Z. S. 1870, pp. 230, 621. 



1875.] 



Bears — Tupayes. 



Though severely bitten, the man recovered." It is probable that such acts 
are prompted by maternal solicitude. The common Sloth. Bear, or Prochilus 
laliatus, of India and Ceylon, is unknown to the eastern side of the Bay of 
Bengal. 

Of the Infra -sub-order Pinnigeada, or Seals, etc., there is no representative 
in inter-tropical seas. 



Sub -order Insectivoea. 

Fam. Tup&idse. 

Tupayes. 

*65. TUPAIA PEGTJANA (J. 88). 

Tupaia peguana, Lesson, Belanger's Voy., Atlas, t. 4 ; Cladobates belangeri, Warner • 
Herpestes sp., Calc. Journ. N. H. ii. p. 458. Tswai, Arakan. 

Common throughout British Burma, but hardly separable from T. 
ferruginea, Raffles, of the Malay countries, from which it seems to differ only 
in wanting the deep ferruginous tinge on the upper-parts, though even this 
is not quite absent in some specimens. Northward it extends to the Khasias, 
and even to the lower range of the Sikhim Himalaya. 

According to Col. McMaster, "Burmese specimens differ somewhat from 
those of Arakan, in having the lower parts much darker, and with the pale 
central line narrower ; in the Burmese examples, the whole chin, throat, and 
breast being buff." He also remarks that "the Burmese Tupaia is a harm- 
less little animal: in the dry season living on trees, and in the Monsoon 
freely entering our houses, and in impudent familiarity taking the place 
held in India by the common Palm Squirrel; it is, however, probably from 
its rat-like head and thievish expression, very unpopular. I cannot," he adds, 
"endorse Jerdon's statement regarding their 'extraordinary agility,' for they 
did not to me appear to be nearly so active as Squirrels : at least, I remember 
one of my terriers on two occasions catching one, a feat which I have never 
seen any dog do with a Squirrel ; cats of course often pounce upon them." 
Mason remarks that "one that made his home in a mango-tree near my 
house at Tonghoo made himself nearly as familiar as the cat. Sometimes I 
had to drive him off the bed, and he was very fond of putting his nose into 
the tea-cups immediately after breakfast, and acquired quite a taste both for 
tea and coffee. He lost his life at last, by incontinently walking into a 
rat-trap." 

In the vicinity of Malacca the small T. javanica, Horsf.,* is associated 
* Zool. Res. in Jaya. 



m 



m. 



32 Mammals of Burma, [Xo. 1, 

with T. ferruginea, though unnoticed in Dr. Cantor's " Catalogue of the 
Mammalia of the Malayan Peninsula ;" and perhaps the most extraordinary 
instance in the class of what has been termed " mimicry" occurs in a Squirrel, 
Ehinosciurus tupaiades, Gray, differing little, if at all from Sciurus laticau- 
datus, S. Miiller, of Sumatra and Borneo, which inhabits the same district. 
Not only does this rodent resemble T\ ferruginea in size and the texture and 
colouring of its fur, but the muzzle is singularly elongated, and there is even 
the pale shoulder-streak usual in the genus Tupaia. As a group of Inseeti- 
vora the Tupayes would seem to/' mock" the Squirrels; but the particular 
species of Squirrel referred to again specially simulates the Tupaia ferruginea 
of the same locality. 

Another Malayan species of the order Inseetivora, the Gymnura rafflesii, 
Yigors and Horsfield ( Viverra gymnura, Raffles), occurs probably in Mergui, 
and is doubtfully mentioned as having been received from Arakan,* probably 
by mistake. This remarkable animal is not unlikely to be the " Opossum" 
of Colonel Low,f for it is difficult to imagine what other animal could be 
alluded to by that name. 

Fam. Erinaceidse. 

66. Hylomys suillus. 

R. peguensis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxviii. p. 294; Anderson, Trans. Z. S., vol. viii. 
p. 453. 

Procured by Major Berdmore in the valley of the Sitang river. The 
Bornean specimens which I saw at Leyden appeared, without actual com- 
parison, to be quite identical. 



Fam. Soricidse. 

Sub-fam. Soricin^ (Shrews). 
67. Pachyitea iistdica (J. 69). 

Sorex indicus, Geoff. ; 8. cwrulescens, Shaw ; Pachyura indica, Anderson, P. Z. S. 
1873, p. 231. KyweUsuk (Mason). 

Indian Musk Shrew. The common pale grey Musk Shrew, vulgarly 
called the "Musk Eat" in India, occurs in the Tenasserim provinces, where, 
if I mistake not, it is the prevalent species. 

* Calc. Journ. N. II. ii. p. 147. 

f J. R. A. S. hi. p. 50, and As. Res. xvii. p. 159. 



1875.] Insectivores. 33 

68. P. muei^a (J. 70). 

Sorex murinus, Lin. ; Pachyura murina, L. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 231. 
Malayan Musk Shrew. "This," remarks Dr. Jerdon, "is the common 
large 'Musk Eat* of China, Burma, and the Malayan peninsula, extending 
into Lower Bengal and Southern India, especially the Malabar coast, where 
it is said to be the common species, the bite of which is considered venomous 
by the natives. The musky odour of this Shrew is much less powerful than 
in S. ccerulescens" I was never able to obtain a specimen of it in Lower 
Bengal, and am not wholly satisfied with regard to its alleged range in 
Burma. 

69. P. Gkifeithii. 

Sorex griffithii, Horsfield, Catal. ; Tomes, Ann. M. N. H., 2nd ser. vol. xxiv. p. 28; 
P. griffithii, Horsfd., Anderson, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 231. 

The large Black Shrew. Inhabits the Khasia hills and those of 
Arakan ; certainly not Afghanistan, as stated by Dr. Horsfield.*' 

70. P. isruDiPES. 

Sorex nudipes, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv. p. 34; S. perroteti apud Blyth, ibid. xvi. 
p. 1275. P. nudipes, Blyth, Anderson, P. Z. S. 1873, p. 231. 

The Bare-footed Shrew. One of the group of minute Shrews, which 
appears to be of common occurrence in the Tenasserim provinces. 

71. Ceociduea fuligkestosa. 

Sorex fuliginosus y Blyth, J. A. S. B. vol. xxiv. p. 362; Crocidura fuliginosa, Anderson, 
P. Z. S. 1873, p. 231. 

The Dusky Shrew. Procured by Major Berdmore in the Tenasserim 
Provinces. 

Sub-fam. Talpinje (Moles). 

72. Talpa leucuea. 

Talpa leucura, Blyth, J. A. S. B. vol. xix. p. 215, and figure of skull. 
The Sylhet Mole. Obtained by Major Berdmore in the valley of the 
Sitang. 

* The late Mr. S. Griffith collected both in the EMsia hills and in Afghanistan, and 
his specimens from those two very distinct localities became intermixed and confounded. 
Hence several Khasia species of mammalia, birds, and reptiles have been erroneously stated 
by Messrs. Horsfield and Moore to inhabit Afghanistan. Vide Ibis, 1872, p. 89. 

3 






#A 



34 



Mammals of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



g 



Order CETACEA. 

Fam. Delphinidae. 

Dolphins and Porpoises. 

73. Oecella fluminalis. 

Orcella fluminalis, Anderson, P. Z. S. 1870, pp. 220, 544 ; 1871, pi. 43, fig. 2. 
La-boing (Mason). 

The Irawadi Dolphin, inhabiting the deep channels of the river from 
300 to 600 miles from the sea. Colour uniform dirty white. 

Fam. Balsenopteridse. 
Rorquals. 

74. Bal^noptera indica (J. 147). 
Balanoptera indiea, Blyth, J. A. S. B. vol. xxviii. p. 488. 

Indian Eorqual. A specimen eighty-four feet in length was cast upon 
Juggoo or Amherst Islet, South of Eamri, and East of Cheduba, on the Arakan 
coast, in 1851 : another was stranded on the Chittagong coast in 1842, said 
to have been ninety feet long and forty-two feet in circumference* Whale 
Bay, in the Mergui archipelago, was so named by Captain B. Lloyd, "from 
the circumstance of its being resorted to by numerous Whales,"! it being 
the only part of the coast where he had seen them. 



Order PEOBOSCIDEA. 

Fam. Elephantidae. 
75. Elephas indicus (J. 211). 
Mephas indicus, Linn.; Eseu, Mason; Chang, Siamese. 

The Asiatic Elephant. The Elephant of Sumatra, and also that of 
Ceylon is considered by Professor H. Schlegel to be a peculiar species, E 
sumatranus, Schlegel ; but the late Dr. Falconer did not admit of the alleged 
distinctions, and a large living male Sumatran Elephant in the Zoological 
Gardens of Amsterdam, as also a half-grown one in that of Eotterdam, are 
certainly not to be distinguished by any external character from the ordinary 
Indian Elephant. 

* Noted in J. A. S. B. xxi. p. 414, and xxviii. p. 482. 
t ibid. vii. p. 1030, and map. 



1875.] 



Rodents and Squirrels. 



35 



Order EODENTIA. 

Fam. Sciuridae. 

Sub-fam. Pteeomydinje (Flying-squirrels). 
*76. Pteeomts cikeeacetjs. 

Pteromys cineraceus, Blytli, J. A. S. B. xxviii. p. 276 ; P. petaurista, var. cineraceus, Bl., 
ibid. xvi. p. 864. Shau-byau, Arakan. 

The Burmese Great Flying-squirrel inhabits Arakan, Pegu, Tenasserim 
provinces. It is a large species, very like P. petaurista of Central and 
Southern India and also Ceylon, but generally with whitish tail; one 
Tenasserim specimen, however, is unusually rufous, with the tail coloured 
uniformly with the upper-parts. 

Many specimens of this animal require to be collected and compared 
together. 

*77. SciUEOPTEETJS PHATEEI. 

Sciuropterus phayrei, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxviii. p. 278; S. sagitta, apud Blytli, ibid. 
xxiv. p. 187. 

Pegu, Tenasserim Provinces, and Cambodj a, where it was obtained by 
Mouhot. It is akin to S. horsfieldi, "Waterhouse (S. aurantiaeus } Wagler), 
of the Malayan peninsula. 

*78. S. SPADICEUS. 

Sciuropterus spadiceus, Blytli, J. A. S. B. xvi. p. 867, pi. xxxvi. fig. 1. KywaUshoo- 
byan, Arakan. 

It inhabits Arakan, and is a diminutive species, of the same size as 
S. volueella of North America. 



Sub-fam. Sciurinje (Squirrels). 
*79. SCIUETTS MACEUEOIDES (J. 151). 

Sciurus maeruroides, Hodgson. Zeng-thet, Arakan; Sheu (generic), Tenasserim, 
Mason. 

The large Black Squirrel. This is the Himalayan S. bicolor, auct., with 
densely clad ear-conch, whereas Malayan specimens referred to the same 
have an almost nude ear-conch. There is a Tenasserim local race, with 
broad pale transverse band on the loins, forming a kind of cincture. The 
true S. bicolor, Sparrman, is now identified with the Javanese race, S. 
hypoleucus, Horsfield, which is not larger than the S. macrourus com- 



36 



Mammals of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



mon in Ceylon. Examples from the Arakan mountains do not differ from 
those of the E. Himalaya and the hills bordering on the Brahmaputra 
valley to the southward of it. The races brought together under the name 
S. giganteus, Tern., seem to be almost endless, but each of them is locally 
true to its particular type of colouring, within a moderate range of variation. 



mJ 



*80. S. FEKET7GINEUS. 

Sciurus ferrugineus, F. Cuv., Mamm. Lithog.; S. keraudreni, Is. Geoffroy, vide J. A. S. B. 
xxiv. p. 474, xxxi. p. 334 ; S. siamensis ? Gray. 

The Bay Squirrel. Occurs in the hilly regions of Arakan and Pegu. 



81. S. CANICEPS. 

Sciurus caniceps, Gray, Ann. M. N. H. 1842, p. 212 ; S. chrysonotus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 
xvi. p. 873, xxiv. p. 474. 

The Golden-backed Squirrel. It inhabits the Tenasserim provinces, but 
is commoner to the southward ; it is certainly not found in Bhotan, or any 
part of India, as asserted by Dr. Gray. 

82. S. ATKODOESALIS. 

Sciurus atrodorsalis, Gray, Ann. M. N. H. 1842, p. 213; vide J. A. S. B. xxiv. p. 477, 
xxviii. p. 276 ; var. S. hyperythrus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv. p. 474, vide Beavan in P. Z. S. 
1866, p. 428 ; S. rufogaster, Gray, same variety. 

The Black-backed Squirrel. It is common in the hills about Maulmein, 
but is replaced on the opposite side of the Salween by the next species. 
It certainly does not occur in " India, Benares," as asserted by Dr. Gray. 



*83. S. PHAYEEI. 

Sciurus phayrei, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxiv. p. 476, xxviii. p. 275 ; S. pygerythrus, var. ? 
ibid. xvii. p. 345. 

Phayre's Squirrel. It is common throughout the Province of Martaban, 
but does not inhabit Malabar, as has been stated.* 



84. S. BLAtfEOEDI. 
Sciurus phayreiy Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxxi. p. 333. 

It has been found in the vicinity of Ava, and the Shan hills, but not in 
" India," as asserted by Dr. Gray. 



* Ann. M. N. H. ser. 3, vol. xx. p. 277. 



1875.] Rodents and Squirrels. 37 

85. S. piceus. 
Sciurus piceus, Peters, Proe. Zool. Soc. 1866, p. 429, 
Tenasserim. 

*86. S. lokkiah (J. 153). 

Sciurus lokriah, Hodgson, J. A. S„ B. 1836, p. 233 ; & subflaviventer, McClelland, vide 
J. A. S. B. xxiv. p. 475. 

A mountain race, inhabiting JSTipal, Sikhim, the EMsia hills, and those 
of Arakan. 

*87. S. assameistsis. 

Sciurus assamensis, M'Clelland, vide J. A. S. B. xxiv. p. 475 ; S. blythii, Tytler, 
Ann. M. N. H. 1854, p. 72. 

A very abundant race, inhabiting the valley of the Brahmaputra, with 
Eastern Bengal, Tippera, Chittagong, and Arakan. 

*88. S. PYGEKYTHEUS. 

Sciurus pygerythrus, Is. Geoff., Zoologie Voy. de Belanger, vide J. A. S. B. xxiv. p. 475. 
It inhabits Lower Pegu, and is common in the neighbourhood of Bangoon. 

89. S. SLADEKI. 

Sciurus sladeni, Anderson, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 139. 
Thizyain, in Upper Burma. 

90. S. GOKDOOT. 

Sciurus gordoni, Anderson, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 140. 
Bhamo, Upper Burmah. 

91. S. QTJI^QUESTEIATUS. 

Sciurus quinquestriatus, Anderson, P. Z. S; 1871, p. 142. 

A hill species, common at Ponsee, on the Kakhyen range of hills, east 
of Bhamo, at an elevation of from 2000 to 3000 feet. 

92. S. BEKDMOKEI. 

Sciurus berdmorei 9 Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii. p. 603, xxviii. p. 418, xxxi. p. 334 ; S. 
mouhoti, Gray. 

The Ground Squirrel. Tenasserim, Martaban, Mergui, Cambodja. 

Prom what I have observed of this species I doubt if it ever ascends 
trees, as I never saw it retreat to them, but always to the cover of low 
herbage. It should, perhaps, more properly range as a species of Tamias. 



38 Mammals of Burma. [No. 1, 

93. S. BAEBEI. 
Seiurus barbei, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi. p. 875, pi. xxxvi. fig. 3, xviii. p. 603. 

Tenasserim provinces, commoner to the southward, Siam, Cambodja? 
Hainan? S. China? 

A Malacca specimen in the Leyden Museum is marked Tamias leucotis, 
Tern. It is closely allied to 8. m'clellandn of the E. Himalaya and also 
of Formosa, but more brightly coloured, having four pale dorsal stripes 
about equally vivid, alternating with five black stripes. It is doubtless 
8. m'clellandn of Cambodja,* of Hainan, f and of China and Formosa ;$ but 
a Formosan specimen in the Leyden Museum represents the Himalayan race, 
8. m'clellandn. Mason remarks of 8. larlei that it abounds in the provinces 
of Ye, Tavai, and Mergui.§ 



Fam. Muridse. 



Bats and Mice. 

94. Hapalomys longhcattdattjs. 

Hapalomys longicaudatus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxviii. p. 296. 
A remarkable murine form, from Schwe Gyen in the valley of the Sitang 
or neighbouring hills, discovered by Major Berdmore. 

95. Nesokia indica (J. 172). 

NesoMa indica, Gray ; Mus indicus, Geoff. Probably Yae-Jcwet of Mason. 
It has been obtained at Tonghoo by Mr. W. Theobald. || The occur- 
rence of this common Indian field Eat in the open country of upper Pegu, 
together with a Hare akin to the Lepus ruficaudatus of the plains of 
Northern India, and of sundry birds identical with or akin to Indian 
species which are unknown in the broad belt of forest which fringes the 
coast of British Burma, indicates the probability of a closer connexion sub- 
sisting between the faunae of the upper provinces of the two peninsulas than 
we as yet know of; our acquaintance with the fauna of "Western Indo-China 
being chiefly confined to that of the great maritime belt of forest. The 
present species is, however, indicated by Mr. Swinhoe from Formosa. 

* P. Z. S. 1861, p. 137. f ibid. 1870, p. 232. + ibid. 1870, p. 634. 

§ In addition to all of the above, I have seen an undescribed species of medium size 
from Tonghoo. 

|| P. A. S. B. 1866, p. 240. 






1875.] Rats and Mice. 39 

96. Mus bakdicota (J. 174). 
Mus bandicota, Bechstein. Myae-kywet (Mason). 

This species I give on the authority of Mason, which I accept the more 
readily as it is known to occur in Siam and the Malayan peninsula and 
islands ; also in Formosa, where Mr. Swinhoe thinks that it was probably 
introduced when the Dutch were in possession, a.d. 1630.* 



*97. M. DECUMAHUS (J. 176). 
Mus decunianus, Pallas, Glires, 91. 

The common Brown Eat. I observed this pest to be very numerous 
and troublesome at Akyab, but saw no traces of it at Eangoon or Maulmein, 
nor further southward; but wherever there is European shipping, it will 
sooner or later find its way and establish itself permanently. 



*98. M. BOBUSTTTLirS. 

Mus robustulus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxviii. p. 294 ; Theobald, P. A. S. B. 1866, p. 240 ; 
M. berdmorei? Blyth, J. A. S a B. xx. p. 173 ; M* rufescens, Gray, var. ? 

Common Eat of Eangoon and Maulmein, also of Mergui. Eequires to 
be critically examined in the fresh state. 

Under the heading of " "White-bellied Eat," Mason remarks that " the 
Eats are scarcely second to the Termites for the mischief they perpetrate. 
They burrow in the gardens and destroy the sweet potatoes; they make 
their nests in the roofs by day and visit our houses and larders by night. 
They will eat into teak drawers, boxes, and book-cases, and can go up and 
down anything but glass. In the province of Tonghoo they sometimes 
appear in immense numbers before harvest and devour the paddy like locusts. 
In both 1857 and 1858 the Karens on the mountains west of the city lost all 
their crops from this pest ; and it is said that they are equally destructive 
occasionally in the eastern districts, but have not appeared for several years. 
The natives say it is the same Eat as the one that frequents houses." 

Again, he remarks that Mr. Cross, when on the Tenasserim river a few 
months ago (in 1858?), wrote — "The people, in common with all who grow 
the hill paddy, over an extent of country more than fifty miles square, are 
suffering a famine of rice. This is occasioned by swarms of Eats, which 
devoured the paddy, or rather cut down the stalks, just as the ears began 
to fill. The Eats twice visited some parts of this territory during the season, 



m 



* P. Z. S. 1870, p. 635. 



40 



Mammals of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



so that scarcely a stalk of rice escaped them. I met with two of these 
animals, swimming the Tenasserim where it is more than a quarter of a mile 
wide, and succeeded in capturing one. The animal is ahout five inches from 
the nose to the end" (base ?) " of the tail, of a slim and nimble appearance, the 
belly white, and the rest a mouse colour. During the rains, when the river 
is much wider and more rapid, these Eats crossed in columns, as the people 
say, so abundantly that a boat, in passing through, caught bushels of them. 
They only make their appearance at long intervals, like the locusts of other 
places. It is said to be from twenty to thirty years since they visited the 
country before, to any great extent.'* 

99. M. catoatioe (J. 183). 

Mus caudatior, Hodgson, Horsf. Cat. Mamm. India House Mus., p. 144; var. M. 
einnamomeus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxviii. p. 294. 

Lower Pegu and Martaban. 

It differs only from the Nipalese animal of Mr. Hodgson by having the 
upper-parts entirely of a bright cinnamon colour. 

*100. M. CONCOLOE. 

Mus coneolor, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxviii. p. 295, the young; ibid. M. ? p. 294, the 

adult. 

Upper and Lower Burma ; Malayan peninsula. 

It requires to be critically examined in the fresh state. 

101. M. PEOUEisrsis. 

Mus peguensis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxviii. p. 295. 

Schwe Gyen, valley of the Sitang river. 

A particularly well-distinguished species, of which there is an unmis- 
takeable specimen marked from the Philippines in the Derby Museum of 
Liverpool. Mason suspects this to be the field Mouse of the Karen districts. 

102. M. NITIDULTJS. 

Mus nitidulus, Blyth, J, A. S. B. xxviii. p. 294. 

Yalley of the Sitang. Mason notices a "very familiar little Mouse in 
the houses at Tounghoo," which he never saw in the Tenasserim provinces; 
and he inclines to refer it to the present species. 

103. M. BEAVANI. 

Mus beavani, Peters, P. Z. S. 1866, p. 559. 
Valley of the Salween. 



1875.] 



Rats and Mice. 



41 



104. M. BADIUS. 

Mm badius, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxviii. p. 295. 

Yalley of the Sitang. 

It is allied to M. oleraceus of India, the type of Dr. Gray's genus 
Vandeleuria. 

Other species of Eat and Mouse doubtless remain to be discovered, and 
it is desirable that they should be minutely described when fresh. Of the 
former, a very likely species to occur is the M. andamanensis, Blyth,*- a 
subspinous Eat which proves to be the M. setifer apud Cantor, f but not 
M. setifer of Horsfield, which is identical with M. landicota. Three 
well-distinguished species of Mice from the Khasia hills are described 
as M. eunicularis, M. erythrotis, and M. gliroides, Blyth.J According to 
Mason, " there is a Water Eat throughout the country which burrows in the 
banks of streams, and takes to the water when pursued." 

105. Ehizomys sttmateensis. 

Mus sumatren&is, Baffles; JR. einereus, M'Clelland, Calc. Journ. N. H. ii. p. 456, 
and pi. xiv. not good ; Spalax javanus et JJyetocleptes dekan, Temminck. Fwai, Tenasserim, 



Tenasserim provinces ; Malayan peninsula and islands. Arakan ? § 

*106. E. CASTANETJS. 

Rhizomys castaneus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xii. p. 1007, xxxvi. p. 198 ; M. badius apud 
Blyth. 

Arakan, Pegu. 

Barely separable from M. badius (J. 201), from which it seems to differ 
only in its much brighter colouring. 

107. E. PETJINOSUS. 
Rhizomys pruinosus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xx. p. 509. 

Originally described from the Khasias, and obtained by Dr. Anderson 
in the vicinity of Bhamo. || 



9 



108. E. MINOE (J. 201). 
Mizomys minor, Gray, Ann. M. N. H. x. p. 226 ; Horsfield's Catal. No. 228. 
Allied to the two preceding species, but of a dusky brown colour, with 
white muzzle and around the eye, and pale naked feet. I obtained a living 



* J. A. S. B. xxix. p. 103. 

§ Calc. Journ. N. H. ii. p. 297. 



f ibid. xv. p. 254. + ibid. xxiv. p. 721. 

|| Journ. of Exped. p. 256. 



42 



Mammals of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



specimen of this animal when in Upper Martaban, but the skin of it got 
spoiled ; and I at once recognized the same species in two drawings of it as 
obtained in Siam by Capt. Finlayson. It has likewise been obtained at 
Yanangeen, on the Irawadi. It is even included, together with R. sinensis, 
Gray, in Mr. H. Walker's " Catalogue of the Mammalia of Assam" {ibid. iii. 
p. 267) ; but both species are there in need of verification. Mason remarks 
that "this animal, which burrows under old bamboo roots, resembles, " to, 
some extent, a a Marmot more than a Eat, yet it has much of the Eat in its 
habits. I one night caught a specimen gnawing a coco-nut, while camping 
out in the jungles.' ' According to Mason the Byhais call the Bamboo Eat 
Ehai, and they say that there is the Eamboo Xhai, the Eeed Khai, the 
Maranta Khai, and the Wte, a very small species of the same tribe." In 
JR. sumatrensis the fur is thin and bristly. The other three here given are 
smaller animals, with shorter tail and the fur soft and dense. 



Fam. Hystricidse. 

Porcupines. 
*109. Hysteix bekgaleistsis ? (J. 205). 
Hystrix bengalensis, Blyth; H. malabarica, Selater, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 353, pi. xvi, 
Phyoo, Tenasserim (Mason). 

The Porcupine of Arakan appears to be the same as that of Assam 
and of Eastern and Lower Bengal, the skull of which is not tumid, as 
in H. leucura, Sykes. Moreover, I cannot perceive (to judge from the 
stuffed specimen in the British Museum), that the adult H. malabarica, Day, 
differs from it in any respect. I have only seen small Arakan specimens, 
however, and will not be too confident that I am right in referring them to 
the present species. 

110. H. LO^GICAUDA ? (J. 206). 
Hystrix longicauda, Marsden ; Acantheonjavanieum, P. Cuv., Mem. Mus. ix. 1. 1, fig. 3,4. 

I also give this Malayan species with hesitation, though I believe it to 
be that which inhabits the Tenasserim provinces. 

There is also H. alopmis, Hodgson,* from Nipal, which seems to be one 
and the same with IT. grotei, Gray,f from Malacca, remarkable for having 
but one black ring on its white quills. The skins of Porcupines when dried, 
and afterwards relaxed and set up in museums, are usually in wretched 

* J. A. S. B. 1847, p. 772, t. 32. 

f [P. Z. S. 1866, p. 306, pi. xxxi. This species is referred by Mr. Selater to E. 
longicauda, Marsden, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 234.— Ed.] 



1875.] 



Porcupines — Hares — Boars. 



43 



condition, and when of young or half-grown specimens only, some of the 
supposed species of them (if they really be species) are difficult of discrimina- 
tion. These animals require to be compared together when alive, adult, and 
in good condition, in order to be properly understood. 

111. Athekttea pasciculata. 

Rystrix fascicular Shaw ; Buffon, Supp. torn. vii. p. 303, t. 77. 
This animal inhabits the Tippera hills, Siam, and the Malayan peninsula, 
and therefore probably the Indo-Chinese countries generally. 

A living Malayan example in the London Zoological Gardens could not 
be distinguished from its African companions referred to A. africana, Gray ; 
but an example from Assam is much paler in colour and more freckled, as 
was otfe which I possessed from Tippera. This northern race is well figured 
in Hardwicke's " Illustrations of Indian Zoology," copied from one of 
Buchanan Hamilton's drawings. 

Fam. Leporidse. 

Hares. 

112. LePUS PEGUEltfSIS. 

Zepuspeguensis, Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. B. xxiv. p. 471. Yung (Mason). 

Inhabits the open country within or beyond the range of forests. Craw- 
furd long ago remarked that " the Hare is unknown in Pegu, but that it 
makes its appearance in the hills before the disemboguement of the Irawadi." 



Order UNGULATA. 

Fam. Suidse. 

113. Sus ceistatus (J. 215). 

Sus cristatus, Wagner, Munch, gel. Anzeig. ix. p. 535, 1839 ; S. indicus, Gray. 
Tau-wet (Mason). 

A boar which I examined at Akyab was of the ordinary Bengal race . 
but the Tenasserim wild boars are considerably smaller, the skulls of adults 
being one-fifth less in linear dimensions, though otherwise similar. One 
such was given to me in Calcutta as that of a tusked sow, and I afterwards 
found that the Tenasserim boar-skulls differed in no respect. The race 
requires to be critically examined. Mason remarks that the Tenasserim wild 
Hogs are of " a small blackish species, exceedingly numerous/' and that 
they are very destructive to the Karen paddy-fields. According to Colonel 
McMaster, although some heads of Tenasserim wild boars, which I showed 



44 



Mammals of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



him in Calcutta, " were certainly smaller than those of India," the animals 
which he had seen in Upper Pegu appeared to him to be about the same size 
as those which he had seen in former hunting days in India. That Pigs are 
inimical to snakes is well known ; but Mason mentions that he has seen the 
head of a Python "that was killed by a drove of hogs, whose whole length 
measured eighteen feet." Whether wild or tame does not matter, but that 
author repeatedly uses the word "drove" in connexion with wild animals, 
even rats. It is a remarkable fact (if quite trustworthy) that a number 
of Hogs should thus combine to destroy a large Python. 



Fam. Tragulidse. 
Chevrotains. 
114. TeAGULTJS KAKCHIL. 
Moschus Jcanchily Raffles. Yung* (Mason). 

This small Chevrotain, or "Mouse-Deer," with a medial black stripe on 
the chest, is common in the southern Tenasserim provinces, and extends 
throughout the Malayan peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo; but in Java it 
appears to be replaced by the equally diminutive T. jav aniens {T. pelandoe, 
Blyth).f In Cambodja and Cochin-China there is a race which chiefly differs 
from T. hanchil in wanting the medial dark stripe on the chest (T. ajfinis, 
Gray) ; J and the island of Hainan, it is remarked by Mr. Swinhoe, " produces 
a Mouse Deer, which I have made out to be Tragulus meminna.% The 
latter can hardly be, for that species {Meminna indiea) is elsewhere un- 
known eastward of the Bay of Bengal. There is, again, a Chevrotain 
much larger than the T. hanchil y which seems to be generally diffused over 
the Malay countries, the T. napu, P. Cuvier, which is not unlikely to occur 
in South Tenasserim ; and what are probably local races of T. napu have 
been described as T. Stanley anus and T. fuseatus, the pyrrhous T. Stanley anus 
having been erroneously supposed to inhabit Ceylon. Meminna indiea is the 
only species of Chevrotain that inhabits Ceylon and the Indian peninsula ; 
and throughout the Malay countries there are the larger T. napu and its 
subordinate races, and — except in Java — the smaller T. hanehil (to which 
T. affinis should perhaps be subordinated), with T. javanieus in Java only. 
The T. hanehil is the only one, so far as hitherto ascertained, that ranges 
northward into British Burma, and in the Malayan peninsula it is much 
more abundant than the T. napu. 

* The same name which he assigns to Lepus peguensis. 

f J. A. S. B. xxvii, p. 277. 

% P. Z. S. 1861, p. 138. § ibid. 1870, p. 644. 



1875.] 



Deer. 



45 



Fam. Cervidae. 
Deer. 

*115. EUSA AEISTOTELIS (J. 220). 
Cervus aristotelis, Cuv. Schap. 

Common and generally diffused through the great forests. The Samur 
Deer of Burma appeared to me to be rather small, and I have never 
seen a fine pair of horns of this species from the countries eastward of the 
Bay of Bengal. 

*116. Hyelaphus poeclntjs (J. 222). 
Cervus porcinus, Zimm. 

The Draij or Hog Deer, is very abundant. Mason observes, however, that 
this species seems to be confined to the plains. "It abounds," he states, 
" north and east of Maulmein, and on the large islands south of Tavai; but 
it is not found north of the station, nor eastward among the hills, nor in the 
valley of the Tenasserim, but is found again on the plains of the Sitang." 
Some individuals (especially does) are more or less distinctly "menilled" or 
spotted when in their summer coat, which has given rise to reports of the 
Indian Spotted Deer {Axis maculatus) having been observed in Burma. 
The so-called Hog Deer of Malabar is the Meminna indiea; but, whether 
or not introduced (as is most probable), the true Hog-Deer inhabits a part 
of the west and south-west of Ceylon. The Indian Spotted Deer has 
been introduced into Province Wellesley and has there multiplied, as noticed 
by Cantor ; and according to Baffles also in Sumatra, and there by native 
agency. 

^1 17. Pastolia eldi. 

Cervus eldi, Guthrie, Calc. Journ. N. H. ii. p. 415 ; horns figured, ibid. i. pi. xii, 
ii. pi. xii ; C. (Rusa) frontalis, M'Clelland, ibid. iii. p. 401, pi. xiii, xiv ; 0. lyratus, Schinz ; 
C. dimorphe, Hodgson ; Panolia aeuticornis, Gray. Thdmine of Burmese, Sungrai of 
Manipur. 

It inhabits Pegu, and thence northward to the valley of Manipur, and 
southward to Mergui and the adjacent northern part of the Malayan peninsula. 
In Cambodja and the island of Hainan it is replaced by a nearly allied race, 
P. smiihii* subsequently C. platyceros of Dr. Gray;f and interposed 
between the two races of Panolia there would appear to occur the fine 

* Cervus srnithii, Gray, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 45. 
f vide P. Z. S. 1867, p. 841, figs. 22 and 23. 



46 



Mammals of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



Rucervus schornhurghi, Blyth, which is a Siamese representative of the Indian 
R. duvaucetti, and doubtless similar in its habits. For illustrations of the 
horns of all four species, vide Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 835, figs. 1-23. The 
earliest figure of the horns of P. eldi is given, with a portrait of its dis- 
coverer, Lieut. Eld, in the Bengal Sporting Magazine.* 

This remarkable Deer is a highly gregarious species, resorting to open- 
ings in the forest, like the Indian Bara-sing'ha, JRucervus duvaucelli.\ 

*118. Cekvulus aueeus (J. 223). 
Styloceras aureus, H. Smith, G.A.K. iv. 148, t. v. 805. 

Gee, or Barking Deer. 

The diminutive Deer of this form, commonly known as Muntjacs, 
are generally distributed over the hill forests of north-east Asia and its 
islands ; but examination of a series of skulls from different localities 
in the Museum of the London Royal College of Surgeons inclines me to 
think that the various species of them have not been satisfactorily made 
out. That of Java, C. vaginalis, Boddaert, is one of the most distinct, 
and has considerably larger horns than any of the others ; again, the small 
C. reevesii, Ogilby, of China is well distinguished ; and Dr. Gray charac- 
terizes one from Cambodja as C. cambojensis,% which he has since identified 
with Rueervus schornlurgki ! The Burmese species differs in no respect 
that I am aware of from the ordinary Indian one, and again from that 
inhabiting the Malayan peninsula; but the Sumatran would appear to be 
somewhat different. It is the most numerous and universally diffused of 
all the Deer of Burma. More extensive materials for comparison of the 
different races than are at present available are needed for a final determina- 
tion of the species of Muntjac Deer.§ 

Fam. Caprid.se. 

Goats, Sheep, and Antelopes in part. 

*119. CAPEICOElSriS STTMATEEltfSIS. 

Antilope sumatrensis, Shaw; Marsden, Hist. Sumatra, Atlas, pi. xiv; F. Cuvier, 
Mamm. Lithog. ; A. inter scapular is, Lichtenstein ; C. rubida, Blyth ; C. swinhoei, Gray, 
P. Z. S. 1862, p. 263, pi. xxxv ; skull with horns from Arakan, figured Calc. Journ. N. H. 
i. pi. xii. Tan-kseiJc, Mason. 

* Lc. vol. xiv. 1839, p. 346. 

f vide Lieut. Eld, loc. cit., and especially Lieut. Beavan, in J. A. S. B. xxxvi. p. 175 
et seq., and P. Z. S. 1867, p. 759. 
% P. Z. S. 1861, p. 138. 
§ [Sir V. Brooke has since arranged the known species, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 33.— Ed.] 



Goats, Sheep and Antelopes — Bison. 



47 



1875.] 

This species appears to be distributed from Arakan through Pegu to the 
extremity of the Malayan peninsula, and to occur in Siam and Formosa, and 
also in Sumatra. 

This species varies much in colour, from red to black, and the black 
sometimes with a white nape, or the hairs of the nape may be white at the 
base only. Two flat skins from Arakan are of a pale red-brown colour j 
with black dorsal list, and quite resemble the figure of one from Formosa, 
which is styled C. swinhoei. The late Lieut. Beavan, again, described a 
female shot on "the grass and bamboo-covered sides of Zwagaben" moun- 
tain, near Maulmein, as being of a mingled black and ferruginous colour,* 
and he mentions that the animal had been seen at Thayet Myo in Pegu. 
Mason also states that it is common on the mountains of Tonghoo, and 
Cantor obtained it from those of the Malayan peninsula. The "wild goat" 
mentioned by Crawfurd, as stated by the Siamese "to be found in some of 
the mountains of their country, and to be shot for their horns, which are 
prized by the Chinese for certain alleged restorative properties, " can hardly 
be any other. On comparison of skulls from Sumatra, Arakan, and 
Mergui, I could detect no distinguishing character, and they differ little 
from those of C. bubalina of the forest region of the Himalaya, except 
in being considerably smaller. The genus is a very peculiar one, by no 
means so nearly related to the Goats and Gorals as is generally supposed, 
but examples of it should be studied in captivity before it can be thoroughly 
understood, and the skeleton of this form is a desideratum in European 
collections. 



Fam. Bovidse. 

The Bovine family. 
*120. Bos gauetts (J. 238). 

Bos gaurusj C. H. Smith. Fine skull figured in J. A. S. B. vi. p. 224; another ibid. x. 
470. Pyoung. 

The Gaur, or " Bison" of Indian sportsmen, is diffused in all suitable 
localities throughout British Burma, and its range extends southward to the 
straits of Singapore, but not to any of the islands. Nowhere does this grand 
species attain a finer development than in Burma, and the horns are mostly 
short and thick, and very massive, as compared with those of Indian Gaurs, 
though the distinction is not constant on either side of the Bay of Bengal. 
In the Malayan peninsula, where it is known as the Salandang, this animal 
would appear to be becoming extremely rare, at least to the southward ; and 

* P. Z. S. 1866, p. 4. 



48 



Mammals of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



we need information respecting its distribution in other parts of Indo-China. 
I have seen a characteristic skull from Johore, and once possessed a living 
calf, which was sent, together with a Malayan Tapir, from Singapore. 



121. B. EKOOTALIS. 
Bos frontalis, Lambert, Lin. Trans, vii. p. 57, pi. 4; B. gavceus, Colebrooke; P. Z. S. 
1866, pi. 1, young bull; Hodgson, J. A. S. B. x. p. 470, skull, fig. 1. 

The Gayal or Mit'hun. 

In the domestic state only, the range of this fine species extends south- 
ward to the hills bordering on the Koladyne river, which flows into Akyab 
harbour from the north. In the hilly parts of Tippera and Chittagong it 
exists in the wild state. In the fully mature bull the horns are longer and the 
dewlap is considerably more developed than is represented in the figure cited. 

*122. B. SONDAICUS. 
Bos sondaicus, S. Miiller; B. bentinger, Temminck. Tsoing of Burmese. 

The Banting inhabits Pegu, the Tenasserim provinces and Malayan penin- 
sula, Sumatra, Borneo, and Java ; being domesticated in the island of Bali. 

The hybrid with the Javan humped cow constitutes the B. leuco- 
prymnus of Quoy and Gaymard, as the hybrid Gayal constitutes the P. 
sylhetanus of F. Cuvier. The Banting has bred in the Zoological Garden 
of Amsterdam, where I have seen bull, cow, and calf in fine condition. 
The bull, more especially, has an indication of a hump, which, however, 
must be specially looked for to be noticed ; and he has a broad and 
massive neck like the Gaur, but no raised spinal ridge, nor has either of 
these species a deep dewlap like the Gayal. The cow is much slighter 
in build, with small horns that incline backwards ; and she retains her 
bright chestnut colour permanently, while the bulls become black as they 
attain maturity, excepting always the white " stockings," and also the white 
patch on each buttock, which is characteristic of the species. In the old 
bull the cuticle between the bases of the horns becomes enormously thickened, 
corneous and rugged, and this begins to show before the coat has commenced 
to change colour, as may be seen in a stuffed specimen in the British Museum, 
which is that of an animal procured in Pegu by the author of this paper, 
and which lived for some time in the London Zoological Gardens. How far 
to the eastward the range of this animal extends in the Indo-Chinese 
countries, remains to be ascertained ; but I have reason to believe that two 
other species of Bos there remain to be described, one of which is domesticated 
in Siam and the other in Cochin China. 



1875.] 



Buffaloes and Tapirs. 



49 



123, Bubalus ABNI (J. 239). 
Bos ami, Shaw. 

The Indian Buffalo exists wild, whether or not indigenously so, and 
everywhere in the domestic state ; and, as the calves obtain their full supply 
of milk, the tame Buffaloes in Burma assume their full development, and 
are not stunted in their growth, as in most parts of India. The Rev. E. Mason 
remarks that u there are great numbers of wild Buffaloes in the jungles 
of the South, which are supposed by the natives to be indigenous ; but they 
are more probably of the domestic race that have run wild, like the wild 
Horses of America.' ' The Indian Buffalo now abounds in a state of wildness 
in the north of Australia, where they have spread from Port Essington, 
and there are many in the delta of the Nile, where also they must needs have 
descended from domestic stock. 

Erom Crawfurd's description of the animal it would seem that Bos 
sondaicus is domesticated in Siam. He, however, styles it B. taurus ? " The 
Bos taurus" he remarks, "is found wild in the Siamese forests, and exists 
very generally in the domestic state, particularly in the northern provinces. 
Those we saw about the capital were short limbed, compactly made, and 
frequently without horns. They were generally of a red or a dark-brown 
colour, and never of the white or grey, so prevalent amongst the cattle 
of Hindustan. They also want the hump over the shoulders, which charac- 
terizes the latter. They are used only in agricultural labour, for their milk 
is too trifling in quantity to be useful, and the slaughter of them, publicly 
at least, is forbidden even to strangers. "When, during our stay, we wanted 
beef for our table, our servants were obliged to go three or four miles out 
of town, and to slaughter the animals at night. The wild cattle, for the 
protection of religion does not extend to them, are shot by professed hunts- 
men on account of their hides, horns, bones, and flesh, which last, after being 
converted into jerk beef, forms an article of commerce to China."* 



*9 



Fam. Tapiridse. 
Tapirs. 
124. Tapieus malayaktjs. 

Tapirus malat/anus, .Raffles, F. Cuvier, Mamm. Lithog. i. p. 87. Ta-ra-shu, Mason. 

The Malayan Tapir inhabits the Tenasserim provinces as high as the 

15th deg. north lat. ; also Lower Siam, the Malayan peninsula, Sumatra, 

and Borneo ; if not likewise the southern provinces of China, where the 

species is not likely to be a different one. " Though seen so rarely, v 

* Embassy to Siam and Cochin China, ii. p. 192. 



50 



Mammals of Burma. 



[Ho. 1, 



remarks Mason, "the Tapir is by no means uncommon in the interior of 
Tavoy and Mergui provinces ; I have frequently come upon its recent foot- 
marks, but it avoids the inhabited parts of the country. It has never been 
heard of north of the valley of the Tavoy river.' ' 



Fam. RJiinoceratidse . 

Rhinoceroses. 

125. Khutocekos sokdaicus (J. 213). 
Rhinoceros sondaicus, Cuvier ; Horsfield, Zool. Res. in Java ; S. Muller, Verhand. t. 33 ; 
R. nasalis, R. stenorhynchus, et R. floweri, Gray, apud Busk, P. Z. S. 1869, p. 416. 
Khyen-hseu, Mason. 

The Lesser One-horned Rhinoceros. So far as I have been able to 
satisfy myself, this is the only single-horned Ehinoceros of the Indo-Chinese 
and Malayan countries, its range of distribution extending northward to the 
Garo hills, where it co-exists with the large R. indicus, and to eastern and 
Lower Bengal. It would appear to be the only Ehinoceros that inhabits the 
Sundarbans, occurring within a few miles of Calcutta; and yet I know of 
but one instance of its having been brought to Europe alive,** and then it was 
not recognized as differing from R. indicus, which latter is not uncommonly 
brought down the Brahmaputra from Assam, and sent to Europe from 
Calcutta. There is reason, also, to believe that R. sondaicus is the species 
which was formerly hunted by the Moghul Emperor Baber on the banks 
of the Indus. Southward it inhabits the Malayan peninsula, Sumatra, Java, 
and Borneo (?vide Busk, he. cit.). It is about a third smaller thani?. indicus, 
from which it is readily distinguished by having the tubercles of the hide 
uniformly of the same small size, and also by having a fold or plait of the 
skin crossing the nape, in addition to that behind the shoulder-blades. In 
R. indicus the corresponding fold does not thus meet its opposite, but curves 
backward to join — or nearly so in some individuals — the one posterior to the 
shoulders. A fine living male, before referred to, was exhibited for some 
years about Great Britain, and was finally deposited in the Liverpool Zoo- 
logical Gardens, where it died, and its preserved skeleton is now in the 
anatomical museum of Guy's Hospital, Southwark. Two passable figures 
of it from life are given in the " Naturalists' Library," where it is mistaken 
for the huge R. indicus. 

* [Since Mr. Blyth wrote this paper, another example of this species is now alive in the 
Zoological Society's Garden.— J. A.] 



- 



1875.1 Rhinoceroses. 51 

Rhinoceros sondaicus is found at all elevations, as remarked of it by Dr. 
Horsfield, in Java; and from the mountains of Palouk, thirty miles 
north of Mergui, a writer quoted by the Kev. E. Mason observes— " We 
were on the summit of the highest range of mountains in the provinces- 
The tall timber trees at the first ascent were dwindled into a thick growth 
of stunted bushes, unmixed with a single shrub. The path, which was 
narrow and steep, had reached a level spot, that had been in the rains 
the wallowing place of a rhinoceros; for it has the habit of wallowing 
in the mire no less than the hog and the buffalo." The Sumatra Rhinoceros 
was also tracked by General Eytche to an altitude of about 4000 feet, when 
he obtained a close view of the animal with two finely developed horns.* 
Crawfurd was assured at Bangkok that a thousand Ehinoceros horns were 
thence annually exported to China. 

According to Heifer, the R. indicus, in addition to R. sondaicus, inhabits 
the northern portion of the Tenasserim provinces ; and Mason asserts that a 
single-horned Ehinoceros from the Arakan jungles was purchased by the 
London Zoological Society, and lived for many years in the Eegent's Park, 
the species in that case being unquestionably R. indicus. Again, according 
to a writer in the Oriental Sporting Magazine,! both species of one-horned 
Ehinoceros occur in Burma, and he cites, as his authority for the statement, a 
writer in the first series of the same periodical (vol. ii. p. 35), mentioning that 
his said authority appears to be "a thorough sportsman and no mean 
naturalist." I nevertheless hesitate, upon present evidence, to admit the 
Great Indian Ehinoceros into the list of Burmese animals. 

126. Ceeatoehestus ceossii? 
Ehinoceros crossii, Gray, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 250, with figure of anterior horn, 32 in. 
in length over the curvature, and 17 in. in span from base to tip ; R. lasiotis, Sclater. 

Ear-fringed Ehinoceros. In the Ehinoceroses of this type the hide is 
comparatively thin, and is not tessellated or tuberculated, nor does it form a 
" coat of mail/' as in the preceding; but there is one great groove (rather 
than fold or plait) behind the shoulder-blades, and a less conspicuous crease 
on the flank, which does not extend upwards to cross the loins, as represented 
in E. Cuvier's figure ; and there are also slight folds on the neck and at base 
of the limbs; the skin being moreover hairy throughout. There is also a 
second horn placed at some distance behind the nasal one. 

Until recently, the existence of more than one species was unsuspected. 
In 1868, a young female was captured in the province of Chittagong, and on 

* J. A. S. B. xxxi. p. 157. t July, 1832, p. 301. 



T— ' 






5 2 



Mammals of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



g^ 



its arrival in the London Zoological Gardens, early in 1872, was believed to 
represent the Rhinoceros sumatrensis of Bell and Baffles ; but soon afterwards 
another two-horned Bhinoceros was received at the same establishment from 
Malacca, obviously of a different species, which proved to be the veritable R. 
sumatrensis. Since its arrival, it has now (1873) considerably increased in size, 
and it probably is not yet quite full grown. As compared with C. sumatrensis, 
it is a considerably larger animal, with much smoother skin, of a pale clay- 
colour, covered with longer and less bristly hair, the latter of a light brown 
colour, as seen in the mass. The ears are placed much further apart at the 
base, and are not lined with hair as in the other, but are conspicuously fringed 
with long hair ; and the tail is much shorter and largely tufted at the end. 
The horns are worn away, but if the species be truly assigned to C. crossii, 
the anterior would grow very long and curve to a remarkable extent back- 
wards, while the posterior horn would probably be short. A second speci- 
men of an anterior horn, almost as fine as the one first described, has recently 
turned up among the stores of the British Museum ; and I found a smaller 
anterior horn of R. crossii in the Museum of the London Boyal College 
of Surgeons, confirmatory of its peculiar shape. In this group the horns are 
remarkably slender except at the base, and of much more compact texture 
than in other Bhinoceros horns. I have reason to believe that this is the two- 
horned species which inhabits the Arakan hills, those of northern Burma, 
and which extends rarely into Assam ; and I think it highly probable that 
the skull figured in Journ. As. Soc. B. xxxi. p. 156, pi. iii. f. 1, repre- 
sents that of C. crossii (sen R. lasiotis), in which case the range of the 
species would extend into the Tenasserim provinces. A detailed notice of the 
individual sent to London has been given by Dr. Anderson. *' 

127. C. SUMATBENSIS. 
Rhinoceros sumatrensis. Bell, Phil. Tr. 1793, p. 3, pi. 2, 3, 4 ; R. javanus, F. Cuv. 
Mamm. Lithog., very young; G. blythii, Gray, Ann. M. N. H. (4), vol. xi. p. 360. 
Kyen-shan, Mason. 

The Sumatran Rhinoceros is much smaller than the preceding species, 
with a harsh and rugose skin, which is black, and clad with bristly black hairs ; 
the ears less widely separated at base, and filled internally with black hairs ; 
the muzzle anterior to the nasal horn much broader ; and the tail conspicuously 
longer, tapering, and not tufted at the end. Horns attaining considerable 
length, and curving but slightly backwards, as represented in Journ. As. Soc. B. 
xxxi. p. 156, pi. iv. f. 1. 

* P. Z. S. 187i p. 129. 






1875.] 



Dugong and Pangolins. 



53 



\ 



This is the ordinary two-horned Rhinoceros of the Tenasserim pro- 
vinces, extending into Siam, and southward throughout the Malayan 
peninsula and Sumatra ; but in Borneo there would appear to be a still 
smaller species, which is referred to the same by Professor H. Schlegel. 
How far northward its range extends has not been ascertained, but I suspect 
that it does not occur in Arakan. A Ehinoceros of some kind inhabits the 
province of Quang-si, in China, in lat. 15 deg. 1ST., as noticed by Du Halde. 
In general, this is an exceedingly shy and timid animal, but it has been known 
to attack the night-fires of travellers, as happened once to Professor Oldham. 
In this case the animal was shot, and its skull is now in the Museum of 
Trinity College, Dublin, where I have verified it as appertaining to the 
present species. For remarks on this and the preceding species, vide Ann. 
M. N. H. (4), vol. x. (1872), p. 399. Lieutenant Newbold noticed the 
existence of the "Badok, or Sumatran Rhinoceros" in the Malayan peninsula 
in 1838.* 

Order SYBENIA. 
Fam. Hallcoridse. 

128. Haltcoee dugoito (240). 

Trichechus dugong, Erxleben, F. Cuvier, Mamm. Lithog. ii. 120; Zool. Aristolabe, 
Atlas, t. 27. 

The Malayan Dugoug. Mason records that the existence of this animal 
in the Mergui archipelago was brought to his notice by the late Rev. S. 
Benjamin in 1853. It is occasionally obtained by the Andaman Islanders. 
Finlayson strangely asserts that in this animal "a single spiraculum opens 
near the top of the head." 

Fam. Manidae. 
Pangolins. 

*129, Pangoli^us letjctjeus. 
Manis lucurus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xi. p. 454; xvi. p. 1274. Theu-khwce-ghyal, Mason. 
Burmese Pangolin. Ranges from Arakan to Mergui, and is probably 
the species " closely allied to javaniem" observed by Dr. Anderson near 
Bhamo. From Malacca I have only seen the P.javanicus, Desmarest, and it 
is probable that P. auritus, Hodgson, 1836 {Manis dalmanni, Sundevall, 
1842, M. multiscutata, Gray, 1843), occurs to the northward. From Cam- 
bodja Dr. Gray gives P. pentadactyla (Pangolinus typus). 

* Madras Journ. Lit. Sc. vii. p. 70. 



54 



Birds of Burma. 



pro. i, 



Province SAUROPSIDA, 

Class AYES. 

Sub-class Carinatje. 

Order PREEENSORES, 

Fam. Psittacidse. 

Parrots. 

*1. Pal^eoeistis alexandri (J. 147).* 

P. eupatriusj L., adopted by Dr. Finseh, Die Papageien, torn. ii. p. 11. Kyai- 
phoung-ka. 

A mountain species in British Burma, chiefly or wholly confined to the 



I 



* It is probable that more species of Paljeornis remain to be discovered in the Indo- 
Chinese peninsula. Some of them are very local, as P. columboides (J. 150), which is 
confined to the mountains of S. India, as P. calthrop^e is to those of Ceylon. P. ery- 
throgenys, nobis (P. nicobaricus, Gould, B.As. pt. ix. pi. 13), is known only from the 
Andaman and Nicobar Islands. P. caniceps, nobis (Gould, B. As. pt. ix. pi. 12), was 
founded on a mutilated specimen obtained alive from a Nicobar savage, and a black-billed 
(and probably, therefore, female) example of it was subsequently procured by the late Dr. 
Cantor in Province "Wellesley, These were the only specimens known, when Herr v. Pelzeln 
obtained it in the Car Nicobar, and quite recently I saw three in a collection, which also 
contained two of P. erythrogenys, but whence obtained could not be learned, and there 
were no species peculiar to the Andaman or Nicobar Islands together with them, though 
several common to the Tenasserim provinces and Malayan peninsula. The fine P. derbianus 
(P. Z. 8. 1850, pi. 25 ; Gould, P. As. pt. x. pi. 9) is only known from a single speci- 
men, the habitat of which could not be ascertained; and P. barbattjs, Gm. (Souance 
Rev. Zool. 1856, p. 209; P. luciani, Verreaux, P. erythrogenys, Fraser, P. Z. S. 1850, 
pi. 26; Gould, B. As. pt. ix. pi. 11), is yet another species of which the habitat has 
only recently been ascertained, viz. "Western China (Sze-chuen), though three or four 
specimens of it were preserved in different museums. All of these birds, excepting the first- 
mentioned two (from S. India and Ceylon), are nearly akin to P. vibrisca, though well dis- 
tinguished in every instance ; and the last three of them are not unlikely to prove indigenous 
to different parts of the Indo-Chinese countries. P. longicaudatus (Gould, B. As. pt. x. 
pi. 10, 11) ; P. malaccensis (Gmelin, nee Latham) ; P. erythrogenys (Lesson, and of which 



1875.] 



Parrots. 



55 



loftier elevations. Mason remarks that he never observed it in the pro- 
vinces of Tavoy and Mergui. Schomburgk, however, notes it from Siam.* 

[Palcdornis eupatrius, Lin., is the correct title. Psittacus alexandri^ 
Lin., belongs to the Javan parrakeet.j 

2. *P. TOKQUATTJS (J. 148). 
Kyai-gyot. 

Eesorts to open country as elsewhere, and is therefore chiefly met with 
in the interior, beyond the maritime belt of forest. Dr. Cantor procured it 
so far southward as in Province "Wellesley. 

[Thayet Myo {War&law Ramsay).'] 

3. *P. schisticeps (J. 150). 

P. schisticeps, Hodgs. ; Gould, B. As. pt. x. pi. 8. 
Mountains of Arakan. 

[Tonghoo hills (W. JR.). The Tonghoo bird belongs to the race named 
P.fimchii, Hume (Str. Feath. ii. p. 509).] 

4. *P. cYAtfoCEPHALirs (J. 149, partim). 

P. cyanocephalus, Lin. ; Edwards, pi. 233. Kyai-ta-tna. 
Exceedingly common in the forests of British Burma, where it takes 



P. affinis, Gould, and P. viridirnystax, nobis, are the young), belongs to the southern half of 
the Malayan peninsula, with the islands of Sumatra and Borneo, and Loriculus galgulus 
has exactly the same range of distribution ; the latter being replaced in Java by L. pusilltjs, 
G. R. Gray ; which is closely akin to L, yernalis of India and Burma, it being, however, 
well distinguished, which is more than can be averred of P. yibrisca as inhabiting the 
same island. 

[The Andaman race of P. erythrogenys (P. affinis, Tytler, P. tytleri, Hume) slightly 
differs. P. derbyanus is not generally admitted to be distinct from P. vnelanorhynchus, 
Wagler. It is not certain whether the title Psittacus barbatus, 6m., should not be expunged. 
It was given to Latham's bearded parralceet (Syn. i. p. 238, no. 38), described from a 
specimen, origin unknown, in the Hunterian Museum. Examples of the species, P. luciani, 
are so rare, that a comparison with Latham's description is difficult to make. Eventually 
examples exhibiting the phase of plumage described by Latham may be met with ; in the 
mean time it seems best to follow Dr. Finsch and adapt Verreaux's title.] 

* The Indo-Chinese bird should now be compared with the Andaman race, as described 
by Mr. V. Ball (J.A.S.B. xli. pt. ii. p. 278). 

[I have compared a large series of Burmese and Andaman individuals, and find that the 
latter differ by having the bills considerably larger.] 



56 



Birds of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



I 



the place of P. eosa (Boddaert) of India generally and Ceylon. In Mpal 
both species occur, but the present one only (if I mistake not) in Lower 
"Bengal, and its range extends eastward to the south of China. There are 
various distinctions, one of which is that in P. eosa the wings are blue on 
the inner side, while in P. cyakocephaltts they are green within. P. eosa 
is also a much more finely coloured bird than the other, and has a con- 
spicuously longer tail. 

[Eangoon, Karen hills, Tonghoo {W. i?.). Linnseus's title of Psit- 
iacus cyanocephalus, founded on Brisson's Psittaca cyanocephala (Orn. iv. 
p. 359, no. 70, pi. xix. f. 2, "East Indies"), applies to this race. "While 
Psittacus purpureus, P. L. S. Miiller (Suppl. p. 74, no. 6, d.) y founded 
on the Perruohe d tete rouge de Gingi (Daubent. PL Enl. 264), Psittaca 
gingiana erythrocephala, Briss. (t.c. p. 346, no. 65, pi. 29, f. 2, "royaume 
de Gingi"), as shown by the late Mr. Cassin, ten years ago (P. Ac. !N". 
Sc. Philadelphia, 1864, p. 239), must take precedence of Gmelin's title of 
Psittacus erythrocephalus (S. H". i. p. 325, No. 74 ex Briss.). Mr. Gr. E. Gray 
(H. List, ii. No. 8054), who followed Cassin, adopted P. L. S. Muller ? s title, 
and retained it, rather vaguely, for the species inhabiting " India and 
Ceylon," while restricting Gmelin's title of lengalensis to the Nipalese form. 
Curiously enough, Mr. Gray wrongly associated P. L. S. Mullens title of 
purpureus with Daubenton's plate, No. 888, on which Boddaert founded his 
title of Psittacus rosa (Table, p. 53). There does not appear to be conclusive 
proof of both species occurring in Nipal, but conf. Jerdon, in Ibis (1872, p. 6, 
No. 149). The title of Psittacus rosa, Boddaert, strictly pertains to the 
Bengal form.] 

5. *P. vibeisca (J. 152). 

Psittacus poniicerianus, Gmelin ; P. alexandri (L.), apud Finsch, Die Papageien^ torn. 
Ii. p. 59 ; P. modestus y Fraser, the young. 

An exceedingly common species in the forests of British Burma, and 
Mason remarks of it (in particular) that " immense flocks of Parrakeets may 
be seen simultaneously descending on the rice-fields, where persons have to 
be in constant attendance to drive them away during the season of harvest;" 
while of P. TOEQUATTJS he notices that it is " often seen in the rice-fields, but 
in smaller companies, which have not the habit of simultaneous descent." 
Westward, the present species is common in the Terai region of the E. 
Himalaya, but its range does not extend further into India, whence its 
synonym of ponticerianus is a misnomer. Great numbers of the very young 
are brought every season to Calcutta from Chittagong, and it is remarkable 



1875.] 



Parrots. 



57 



that from the earliest age the males only have the upper mandible coral- 
red. In a presumed female which I possessed in captivity, the upper 
mandible changed from black to coral-red when the bird was about eighteen 
months old; and I have seen numerous specimens which had been killed 
when the change was in progress. I have also shot red-billed and black- 
billed specimens out of the same flock, and therefore cannot admit the P. 
nigrirostris, Hodgson, as a distinct species, differing only in the colour of 
the upper mandible. Moreover, the same sexual diversity in the colouring 
of the bill, whether permanently or otherwise, occurs in several kindred 
species. Barely, the lower mandible is also red in Burmese specimens, 
almost constantly so in Javanese examples ; but I have been unable to 
detect the slightest difference of plumage on comparison of skins from Nipal, 
Arakan, and Java. 

[Eangoon, Tonghoo (W. P.). Assuming that the rose-breasted parra- 
keets of the Indian Continent and Burma belong to one species, and those of 
Java and Borneo to another, it is not difficult to allot to the first their 
correct title. Mr. G. E. Gray (i.e. No. 8066), following Cassin (I.e.), 
adopted for the Indian species exclusively P. L, S. Miiller's title of Psittacus 
fasciatus, bestowed by him (i.e. p. 74, no. 6, f.) on Daubenton's plate (op. 
cit. no. 517), and which subsequently served as the subject of Psittacus 
vibrissa, Boddaert, not vihrisca (i.e. p. 30), and of Psittacus pondicerianus, 
Gm. (i.e. p. 325, 'No. 73). This plate, as has been shown by Dr. Finsch, 
was taken from the Javan species, and therefore the titles cited fall before 
that of Psittacus alexandri, Lin. "Wagler (Monog. p. 511) first bestowed a 
title, that of Palceornis melanorhynchus, on the Continental species, and by 
this it must be called.] 

6. P. MELAKOEHY]S T CHUS. 

P. melanorhynchus, Wagler, nee Sykes; Ibis, 1873, p. 79; P. nigrirostris, Hodgson, 
partim, vide Gale. Journ. N. H. vii. p. 560.* 

A most closely allied species to the last, from the Tenasserim provinces, 
if not also the base of the Eastern Himalaya. As seen alive, together with 
examples of the preceding, the difference is more conspicuous from its 
purely white irides, whereas the other has dark irides. The cap has a 
slight tinge of verditer, but no trace of ruddy colouring, and the red of the 
breast is continued past the black moustachial streak and the ear-coverts, 

* It is worthy of notice that Mason designates the bird, not distinguishing the two 
races, as the " black-billed Parakeet." 






58 Birds of Burma. [No. 1, 

so as to form a half-collar bordering the sides of the cap ; it also does not 
descend so far on the abdominal region, a larger portion of which is green 
than in the other. These differences are conspicuous in the living birds 
when seen together. All hitherto examined have the bill black, but in 
the male it is probable that the upper mandible is coral-red. A Hying 
specimen in the London Zoological Gardens is alleged to be from Kashmir, 
which is certainly a mistake. There are skins in the British Museum which 
are positively from the Tenasserim provinces. 

[The facts here stated are quite new. I am not aware that they have 
ever been previously published. Dr. Jerdon certainly was unacquainted 
with them. Further investigation is most desirable; more especially as 
Mr. Blyth is completely at issue on many points with what has been averred 
by Mr. Hume. My own experience does not accord with Mr. Blyth' s 
opinion.] 

7. PSITTLNTJS MALACCENSIS. 

Psittacus malaceensis y Latham, nee Gmelin j P. incertus, Shaw ; Swainson's III. Orn. 
pi. 154. 

This common Malayan species occurs in Mergui province. It is essen- 
tially a short-tailed Palceomis, but with affinity to Tanygnathus. 

[Blyth' s generic title Psittinus is absorbed by Dr. Finsch in Kuhl's 
Psittacula. Latham's specific title malaccensis is also by the same author 
superseded, on the ground of its conveying an erroneous idea of the geo- 
graphical range, and Shaw's title incertus is adapted. A better or more 
acceptable reason is that Gmelin and Latham named two distinct species 
of Asiatic parrots by the title of malaccensis.^ 

8. ^LoEICTTLUS VEENALTS (J. 153). 
Kyai~tha-da. 

Generally diffused in the forests. 
[Tonghoo(7T. J2.)0 



Order BAPTOBES. 
Fam. Falconidae. 

9. Palco peeegeinatoe (J. 9). 
Falco peregrinator, Sundev. ; Gould, B. As. pt. iii. pi. 2 ; F. communis, var. (?) 
Raffles, ex Sumatra. 

It is asserted by Mason that I showed him a skin of this Falcon received 



1875.] 



Falcons. 



59 



from Burma, though I have no recollection of the circumstance. It is, 
however, a most likely species to occur there, as is also F. peregrinus, in 
suitable localities, where ducks resort plentifully ♦ F. peregrinator would 
appear to be chiefly a Malayan species, and the specimen of it originally 
obtained by Sundevall was obtained on board ship, in lat 6°, between Ceylon 
and Sumatra, about seventy miles from the Nicobar Islands. 

[Major Lloyd has sent me an undoubted example of this Falcon, shot 
near Tonghoo.] 

[10. P. peeegeiistus (J. 8). 
Prome (Oates).~] 

11. Hypoteioechis seveeus (J. 14). 

Tenasserim. Inhabits from the S. E. Himalaya to Java and the Philip- 
pines, but has not hitherto been met with in the plains of India. Mr. 
Holdsworth notes it from Ceylon. 

*12. TiisrisriJKCULTJS alaudaeitis (J. 17). 
Gyo-theing. 

Common. T. saturatus, nobis, * from the Tenasserim provinces, is 
perhaps a distinct race, remarkable for the great development of the black 
markings on its plumage ; but it requires further confirmation. 

[Tonghoo {Lloyd), Karen nee ( W. R.\ Thayet Myo (Feilden). 

Tinnunculus atratus, Blyth, apud G. E. Gray, H. L. No. 212, ex Burma, 
is a misprint for T. saturatus, Elyth.] 

[13. Eeytheopfs vespeeti^tjs ? (J. 19). 

Mr. Hume has thus, with doubt, identified an example sent to him by 
Captain Eeilden from Thayet Myo.] 

14. PoLIOHIEEAX I^SIGKtS. 
Poliohierax insignis, Walden, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 627 ; Lithofalco feildeni, A. 0. Hume, 
P. A. S. P. 1872, p. 70. 
Upper Pegu. 

*15. Hieeax eutolmits (J. 20). 

Falco ccerulescens, apud Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. pt. 2, xxxix. p. 282. Koung-oo-hnouk. 
Arakan, Pegu, Tenasserim, Siam. 
[The title of Microhierax, Sharpe, must be employed for this genus.] 

* J. A. S. B. xxii. p. 277; Ibis, 1866, p. 238. 



60 



Birds of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



w 



16. H. EEKTOILLAEII7S. 
27". fringillarius, Drapiez ; H. malayensis, Strickland ; Falco ccerulescens, apud Vieillot, 
Gal. des Ois. t. 18; PI. Col. 97. 

Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo. Obtained by Heifer, pro- 
bably in Mergui province (specimen in Calcutta Museum). In the north 
of Arakan, K. melanoleucus, nobis,^ will most probably be found to occur, as 
it has been obtained in the province of Kachar. 
[Meeta Myo {Davison).'] 

*17. Baza lophotes (J. 58). 
Arakan, Tenasserim, Malacca. 

18. PEEMS PTILOEHYITCHTJS (J. 57). 

A long-crested specimen received from Mergui, and described as P. 
brachypterus.] Its primaries were not fully grown. Mr. A. 0. Hume 
notes it from Burma and Siam. 

[Tonghoo {W. R.)> Thayet Myo (F. and 0,)] 

*19. ElAHTTS MELAINTOPTEEUS (J. 59). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. "Various localities in British Burma" (A. 0. 
JSume). 

[Thayet Myo {W. 22.), Arakan (0.).] 

*20. Spiloeots cheela (J. 39). 
Doung-tswoon. 

Common in Arakan, if correctly identified, as is most probable. The 
nearly allied but smaller race, with shorter crest, 8. bacha (Daudin) ; Falco 
bido, Horsfield ; Hcernatornis spilogaster, nobis ; H. elgini, Tytler, inhabits 
the Andamans, South India, and Ceylon, as also Malacca and Java ; and, 
according to Messrs. Swinhoe and Gurney, is an intermediate race. 

[Tonghoo {W. £.); Thayet Myo (F.). 8. elgini, Tytler, is undoubtedly 
a distinct species. Nor can I agree to unite 8. spilogaster with 8. bacha. 
At Kalee Gunge Dr. Day obtained an adult bird, in the rich brown plumage 
of true 8. bacha. .] 

21. S. ETJTElEEEOEDI. 
S. rutherfordi, Swinhoe, Ibis, 1870, p. 85. 

Has been procured in the vicinity of Eangoon, in Siam, and Hainan. 
[Said by Mr. Hume to have been obtained near Tonghoo. Neighbour- 
hood of Amherst and Ye (D.).] 



* J. A. S. B. xii. p. 179 bis. 



t J. A. S. B. xxi. p. 436. 



1875.] Falcons. 61 

*22. ClKCTIS MELA^OLEUCXJS (J. 53). 

Thein-kya. 

Arakan, Pegu, Tenasserim. 
[Tonghoo (W. JR.) ; Thayet Myo, Eangoon (#)•] 

*23. C. CTNEBACETJS (J. 52), 

Pegu, Tenasserim. 

*24. C. swaiistsomi (J. 51). 
Arakan, Pegu. 

*25. C. ^EETjai^osrs (J. 54). 
Arakan, Tenasserim. 
[Tonghoo, Eangoon (JT. JR.).'] 

26. POLIOBISTIS TEESA (J. 48). 

Common in Province Amherst. 

[Tonghoo [W. R.) ; Thayet Myo (0.). Hodgson's generic title, Butas- 
tur, takes precedence over Poliornis, Kaup.] ■ 

27. P. estdictts. 

Falco indicus, Gmelin ; F. javanictts, Latham ; Buteo poliogenys, Temminck, Fauna 
Japonica, pi. vii. B., where printed pyrrhogenys ; B.pygmceus, nobis, J. A. S.B. xiv. p. 117 ; 
Astur barbatus, Eyton. 

According to Mr. A. 0. Hume, this species "has now occurred on 
several occasions in Southern Burma." The specimen described as Buteo 
pygmceus was obtained by Heifer. One procured by Mr. Swinhoe in Formosa 
had a crested occiput.* 

28. P. LIYEOTEK. 

jP. liventer, Temminck, p.c. 438. 

An example from Tonghoo, identified by Yiscount Walden;f Siam 
(Gurney). 

[Tonghoo {W. JR.); Thayet Myo (0.). To Major Lloyd belongs the 
credit of having first discovered that this species was an inhabitant of 
Burma, where, judging by the number of examples sent to me, it appears 
very common.] 



* Ibis, 1864, p. 429. 



f Tr. Z. S. viii. p. 37 (1871). 






62 



Birds of Burma. 



[ffo. 1, 



*29. ACCIPITEE VIEGATTJS (J. 25). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. Common. 

[Thayet Myo (F.). Captain Peilden was good enough to send me the 
example here noted, and which I provisionally identify with A. virgatus. 
In Mr. Sharpe's opinion it may belong to the race named A. stevensoni by 
Mr. Gurney. The latter gentleman, however, as will be seen below, identi- 
fied, although with doubt, this Thayet Myo example as belonging to " A. 
rhodog aster, nearly adult. " Above, the plumage is dark cyanous. The 
breast is dove-coloured, without a trace of rufous. The abdomen pure 
white, with dove-coloured bands. The ventral region and under tail-coverts 
pure white ; also the throat, with the exception of a mesial line of ash- 
coloured feathers. Tarsus, 2; wing, 6-25; tail, 5'50.] 

30. TeEASPIZIAS EHODOGASTEA. 
Nism rhodog aster, Schlegel ; Tr. Z. S. vol. viii. pt. ii. p. 33, pi. 11. 

Mr. Gurney thus identifies a specimen sent to Lord Walden from 
Thayet Myo. 

[This refers to the example above mentioned. It is, however, highly 
improbable that a species peculiar to Celebes should occur in Eur ma.] 

*31. MlCEASTUE BADIUS (J. 23). 

Thinkyet-oma. 

Arakan, Siam, Hainan. Common. M. soloemis, Horsfield, should be 
looked for, as it was obtained in the Car Mcobar by Herr v. Pelzeln.* Nisus 
minutus, Lesson, is identified with it by Dr. Pucheran,f being founded on 
a specimen alleged to have been received from the Coromandel coast. Prof. 
Schlegel notes it from Java, Celebes, the Philippines, and China. 

[Tonghoo, Karen hills, at 4000 feet of elevation {W. JR.); Pahchaun, 
Pabyouk, Pahpoon (£.). The Burman race of this species has been separated 
by Mr. Hume, under the title of Micronisus poliopsis, Str. Peath. ii. p. 325.] 

*32. LOPHOSPIZIAS TEIVIEGATA (J. 22). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. * 

[Eastern slopes of the Pegu hills (0.); pine forest north of Kollidoo 
(D.). Hodgson's title of indicus is adopted by some authors for the some- 
what larger Nipalese race of this Sumatran species.] 

* Reise "Novara," Aves, 1850, p. 12. 
t Rev. Zool. 1850, p. 210. 



to 



1875.] 



Falcons. 



63 



*33. Spizaetus limkaetus (J. 34). 
Arakan, Tennasserim, Malacca, Sumatra. 
[Tonghoo ( W. R.) ; Thayet Myo (0.).] 

34. S. ALBOOTGEK. 

S. alboniger, nobis, J. A. S. B., xiv. p. 173 ; Gould, B. As. pt. xv. f. 1. 
Mergui, Malacca, Borneo. 

*35. Aquila bieasciata (J. 27). 
Won-lo. 

Specimen received from Arakan, in the phase of plumage figured as 
A. Ufasciata by Hardwicke and Gray.* 

*36. A. KiEYiA? (J. 28). 
A. orientalis, Cab., Gurney, Ibis, 1872, p. 329. 
Arakan. 

*37. A. EirscA (J. 30). 
A.fusca; vide Mr. A. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1872, pp. 69, 622; Morphnus hastatus, 
Lesson. 

Arakan. 

[The author of the title, A.fusca, is not written in the MS.] 

38. HlEEAETUS PEK^ATUS (J. 31). 

Moulmein. 

I have seen a Spanish specimen with rudimentary occipital crest, as 
usual in Indian examples. 
[Thayet Myo (#.).] 

39. Neopus maxayeksis (J. 32.) 
Tenasserim provinces. f 

*40. Pakdion haliaetus (J. 40). 

Won-let. 

Arakan, Tenasserim. Common. 

*41. POLIOAETUS ICTHYAETUS (J. 41). 

Common. 

[Tonghoo {W. JR.); Pabyouk (D.).] 

* Vide Mr. W. E. Brook, P. Z. S. 1872, p. 502, and Mr. A. Anderson, ibid. p. 620; 
also Dresser, ibid. 1872, p. 863 ; and H. Gurney, Ibis, 1873, p. 99. 
t P. Z. S. 1868, pi. 34. 



64 



Birds of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



42. P. HUMILIS. 

Falco humilis, S. Muller ; Icthyaetus nanus, nobis. 

Burma, fide Yiscount Walden. Mr. W. E. Brooks identifies Haliaetus 
phmbeuSy Hodgson,* with this species. 

*43. Blageus leucogastee (J. 43). 

A common maritime species which preys chiefly on sea-snakes. 

**44. Haliastue indus (J. 55). 

Common, extending southward to Malacca. 

[Tonghoo ( W. JR.); Thayet Myo (O.).j 

*45. MlLYTTS GOTI1TOA (J. 56). 
Tswon-boJee. 

Common in the cold season. At Bangkok it is as abundant as in 
Calcutta. Cantor procured it at Pinang. 

[46. M. AFEiisris. 
M. affinis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 140. 

Thayet Myo examples, obtained by Mr. Oates and Captain Feilden, are 
thus identified by Mr. Hume.] 

[47. Buteo PLUMIPES (J. 47). 

A Buzzard obtained by Captain Peilden at Thayet Myo is identified by 
Mr. Hume as B. Jajjomcus, Schlegel.] 



Fam. Vulturid83. 

Vultures. 

48. YlTLTIIE CALYUS (J. 2). 

Vultur calvus, Scopoli; Gould, B. As. pt. xi. pi. 1. 
Not a common species. 

49. Gyps indicus (J. 4). 

Vultur indicus, Scopoli ; Gray and Mitchell, Gen. Birds, pi. 3, immature plumage. 

Arakan, Siam. Vultures assigned to this species are mentioned to have 

been obtained on Zwagaben mountain by Lieut. Beavan.f I have seen two 

specimens of G. indicus in a Malacca collection. ISTo doubt a Yulture of any 

kind is there rare, or it would not have been deemed worthy of preservation. 



* J. A. S. B., xli. pt. i. p. 73. 



f P. Z. S. 1866, p. 3. 



1875.] Owls. 65 

According to Sir T. Stamford Raffles, "Ytritures are rare on the west coast 
of Sumatra, but are occasionally seen on the Malay peninsula and at 
Pinang."* Mr. E. W. H. Holdsworth notices that the Vulturidce are absent 
from Ceylon;f and Mr. "Wallace asserts the same of the entire Malayan 
archipelago. % 

[Upper Pegu (0.).] 

50. G. BENGALENSIS (J. 5). 
Leu-ta. 

"Often seen in great numbers, even in the suburbs of large towns" 
(Mason). I noticed a few about Akyab only. Cantor procured it in 
Province Wellesley.§ It abounds as much in Siam as in Bengal. 

[Thayet Myo (Hume); Pabyouk (2).).] 



Fam. Strigidse. 
Owls. 

51. HUHTTA NIPALENSIS (J. 71). 

Specimen in nestling garb, obtained by Colonel Tickell upon Moule-it 
mountain, and described by him as Ptiloslcelos amherstii. || This species has 
been confounded with the Malayan H. orientalis (Horsfield), which is a 
much smaller kind, and otherwise differs considerably. The young of both 
are in the British Museum, which enables me to confirm the present identi- 
fication. 

[Tonghoo(JT. R.).-\ 

*52. AsCAIAPHIA BENGALENSIS (J. 69). 

Arakan. 

*53. A. COEOMANDA (J. 70). 

Arakan. 

54. Scops lettia (J. 75). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. Identical with Himalayan specimens. 

[Rangoon, Karen hills ( W. JR.) ; Thayet Myo (F.). The Rangoon and 
Karen examples are not separable from Malaccan individuals. But they are 
distinct from true 8. lempiji, Horsf., which is from Java.] 

* Tr. L. S. xiii. p. 277. f P. Z. S. 1872, p. 406. 

X Ibis, 1868, p. 2. § P. Z. S. 1854, p. 258. 

|| J. A. S. B. vol. xxviii. p. 448. 



66 Birds of Burma. []STo. 1 

*55. S. BAKKAMTJNA (J. 74). 

S.pennata et 8. sunia, Hodgson; Gould, B. As. pt. xxii. pi. 3. 
Arakan. Otus mantis , S. Miiller, which is 8. rufescens, Horsfield, is 
dubiously stated by Mr. A. 0. Hume to have been found in Burma. 

[Thayet Myo (F. fide Hume).'] 

*56. Ketupa ceylokejntsis (J. 72). 

Tee-doJc. 

Arakan. The common Indian species, an example of which was 
obtained by Canon Tristram in the valley of the Jordan. Its range extends 
eastward to China. 

[Tonghoo (W. B.); common from Thayet Myo to Tonghoo (0.); Am- 
herst (D.).] 

57. X. JAYAffEtfSIS. 
K. Javanensis, Lesson; Strix ketupa, Horsfield; Strix ceylonensis, apud Temminck, 
P. C. 74. 

One received from Eamri Island, Arakan ; also Siam. Common in the 
Malayan peninsula and archipelago. 

[Amherst (D.).] 

^58. JEgOLITTS BEACHYOTUS (J. 68). 
Brachyotus accipitrinus (Gm.), Ibis, 1872, p. 328. 

Arakan. 

\_Asio accipititrinus (Pallas) is the correct denomination of this Owl. 
Those authors who may desire to generically separate it from the long-eared 
Owl, will have to adopt the generic title of Brachyotus, Gould, and not that 
of JEgolius, K. and B., previously employed by Kaup as the generic title of 
S. tengmalmi.] ' 

*59. Athene whiteleyi (?). 
Athene whiteleyi (?), Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 313 ; A. cuculoides (?). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. Common. 

A. castanoptera, Horsfield, a Javanese species, is mentioned by Heifer; 
and an example of the Indian A. radiata was obtained by Dr. Cantor from 
Keddah* 

[Eangoon, Tonghoo, Yey-tho {W. JR.); Thayet Myo (0.). The 
numerous individuals collected by Major Lloyd and Lieutenant "W. Kamsay 
all belong to true A. cuculoides.'] 

* P. Z. S. 1854, p. 262. 



1875.] 



Owls. 



67 



[60. A. PULCHRA. 

A. pulchra, Hume, Str. Feath. 1873, p. 469. 
Thayet Myo ( 7F. J2.).] 

61. Glatjcidium: beodiei (J. 80). 
Noctua brodiei, Burton ; Gould, B. As. pt. xxii. pi. 4. 
Obtained by Colonel Tick ell upon Moule-it mountain. 
[Meeta Myo, Kyouknyat (2).).] 

*62. KlNOX scutulatus (J. 81). 
Khen-bok. 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Malacca. Common. 

" Yery abundant at Tavai ; and though I never heard it at Moulmein, 
its familiar voice saluted me on the first night of my arrival at Tounghoo" 
{Mason). 

[Karen hills (Z.); Tonghoo (W. JR.); Thayet Myo (0.); Pahpoon, 
Kyouknyat, Amherst (J).). Until comparison has been made with Sumatran 
examples, it will be best to retain the title of the Ceylon species, iV. hirsutus, 
for the Burman NinoxJ] 

63. Stekitjm selopttto. 

Strix seloputo, Horsfield ; Strix pagodarum, Tem., P. C. 220 ; S. sinensis, vera. ? 
Latham, not of Hardwicke and Gray. 

Mergui, Siam, Nicobar Islands. In Assam, according to Mr. A. 0. Hume, 
this species apparently replaces the S. oceellatum of India, and it is " con- 
stantly found in Burma." 

[Thayet Myo (F.). Identical with Malaccan examples. 8. sinensis, 
Lath., founded on Sonnerat's Eibou de la Chine (Toy. Indes, ii. p. 185), can 
hardly refer to this owl.] 

64. S. ikdeani (J. 63). 

This should be the Burmese race, as it occurs at Malacca, as well 
as in South India and Ceylon ; but Mr. A. Hume has a Burmese specimen, 
and suspects that "if the Nipal and Nilgiri birds be distinct, the Burmese, 
Kumaon, Simla, and Kotegurh birds are intermediate between these two." * 

65. Phodiltjs baditjs (J. 62). 

Strix badia, Horsfield ; Gould, B. As. pt. xxii. pi. 6. 
Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam, Malay countries. 

[Tonghoo, Karen hills ( W. R.). Identical with Malaccan and Bornean 
examples.] 

* "Scrap-book," Part I. Raptores, No. 2, p. 351. 



68 



Birds of Burma. 



[Ho. 1, 



*66. Stbix javanica (J. 60). 

Strix javanica, Gm. ; Gould, B. As. pt. xxiv. pi. 1 ; S. indica, Blytb, Ibis, 1866, p. 250 ; 
nee 8. javanica, apud Horsfield, as figured by Gray and Mitcbell, Gen. Birds, pi. 15. 

Common and generally diffused. 

[Thayet Myo (F). This is true S. javanica, Gm., founded on P. von 
"Wurmb's Nachteuh von Java (Magazin f. d. Neueste, iv. pt. 2, p. 10, no. 4, 
1786). Wo Latin title was given by this author.] 

67. S. CANDIDA (J. 61). 
8. Candida, Tickell; Gould, B. As. pt. xxiv. pi. 2. 

Tonghoo. Occurs also in Central and Southern India, China, the 
Philippine Islands, and Australia. 
[Tonghoo (Z.).] 

Order INSESSORES. 

Sub-order Picaki^e. 

Tribe HALYCONES. 

Fam. Bucerotidse. 

Hornbills. 

*68. DlCHOCEEOS BICOENIS (J. 140). 

Young -yen, Arakan (Phayre). Oukchingee (Big-Hornbill), and sometimes Yonia 
(Beavan). 

This fine Hornbill seems to be generally diffused through the forests, 
and is by no means rare, nor particularly shy. Southward its range extends 
to Malacca and Sumatra.* 

[Mong (W. JR.) ; common on the western slopes of the Pegu hills ( 0.) ; 
Pahpoon, and 30 miles north of Ye (Z 1 .). Mr. Hume (Str. Eeath. ii. p. 470) 
treats the Malaccan race as distinct. The characters which differentiate the 
Indian from the Malayan forms have yet to be recorded.] 

*69. Hydeocissa albieosteis (J. 142). 
Ouk-Khyen. 

The commonest species of Hornbill throughout British Burma. 
[Tonghoo, Karen hills {W. J2.).] 

* Buceros cavatus and B. bicornis are given as distinct species by Mr. W. H. Blanford, 
Ibis, 1870, p. 466. It can only be by a mistake of some kind. 



m 



1875.] 



Ilornbitts. 



69 



70. ANOKBHXNTrS TICKELLI. 
Buceros tickelli, nobis, J. A. S. B. xxiv. pp. 266, 285; xxviii. p. 412; Ibis, 1864, pi. iii. 
Mountains of Amherst Province, up to 4000 feet of elevation. A 
kindred species from the Eagas was referred to A. galeritus by Major 
Godwin- Austen,* and is named A. austeni by Dr. Jerdon;f but it proves to 
be no other than the Malayan Craniorrhinus corrugatus (Tern. P. C. 520), the 
head being now in the possession of Lord "Walden. A. galeritus is also a 
Malayan species. 

*71. ACEEOS PLICATTTS (?). 
Buceros plicatus (?), Latham; B. rufleolUs, nobis, J. A. S. B« xii. p. 176. 

Chittagong, Kachar, Arakan, Tenasserim provinces, Malayan peninsula, 
Sumatra, Java (?). Javanese specimens appear to me to be somewhat 
different. In Tenasserim, remarks Mr. Barbe, both this species and the 
next are very common, associating in flocks of a dozen or twenty birds, but 
the two species do not mingle in the same flock. 

[Dr. Day obtained this species in Assam.] 

72. A. SUBEUFICOLLIS. 

A. subrujicottis, nobis, J. A. S. B. xii. p. 177. 

Tenasserim provinces, Malayan peninsula. This species is very closely 
akin to the Papuan A. ruficollis (verus), the females being undistinguishable. 
[Tonghoo {W. B.).~\ 

73. A. mpaleksis (J. 146). 
Munipur, Kachar, Tenasserim mountains. % 



Fam. Upupidse. 



74. Upttpa longieostbis. 

Upupa longirostris, Jerdon, B. of Ind. i. p. 393. Toung pee-tsoh. 

Tenasserim, Siam, Hainan. 

This is hardly to be considered more than a deeply-coloured race of 
77. epops, and I have an impression that Arakan specimens are pale, like 
those of Lower Bengal and also of Europe. § 

[Tonghoo, Thayet Myo {W. 22.).] 

* J. A. S. B. xxxix. p. 96. f Ibis, 1872, p. 6. 

% For notice of the Hornbills of British. Burma, vide Tickell, Ibis, 1864, p. 173 et seq. 
§ Cf. Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xii. pt. 2, p. 235 ; Sharpe and Dresser, Hist, of Birds of 
Europe, pt. vii. ; Murie, Ibis, 1873, pp. 181 et seq. 



70 



Birds of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



m 



Fam. AlcedinideB. 

Kingfishers. 

75. Caecotetjtes pulchellus. 
Carcineutes puhhellus (Horsf.), Sharpe, Mon. Ale. pi. 96. 
The range of this Malayan species extends to MerguL 
[Karen hills (W. R.) ; Amherst (D.). The examples from the Karen 
hills are absolutely identical with those Malaccan individuals which possess 
a rufous collar. This collar is strongly marked in these Karen specimens. 
But in many Malaccan specimens it is wanting. "When in this common 
phase of plumage, they become the C. amalUis, Hume (Str. Eeath. i. p. 474), 
founded on Upper Pegu examples obtained by Mr. Gates.] 

*76. Pelakgopsis buemaotica. 
Pelargopsis burmannica, Sharpe, Mon. Ale. pi. 35. Peing-nyen (generic). 
Arakan (?), Tenasserim provinces, Siam, Andaman Islands. 
One of several geographical races which are barely separable. 
[Yey-tho, Karen nee {W. H.); Thayet Myo (0.).] 

*77. P. AMATJE0PTEEA (J. 128). 

P. amauroptera (Pearson), Sharpe, Mon. Ale. pi. 30. 

This species is seldom seen far inland, though in India it occurs in the 
Tarai at the foot of the Eastern Himalaya ; being chiefly seen about estuaries 
where the water is brackish. It probably is nowhere more abundant than 
along the Tenasserim coast. 
[Yey-tho (W. £.)•] 

*78. Halcyon pileata (J. 130). 
Halcyon pileata (Bodd.), Sharpe, Mon. Ale. pi. 62. 
Common. 
[Palow (0.); Karope, Tavoy, Moulmein (D.).~] 

*79. H. cobomakda (J. 131). 

H. coromanda (Lath.), Sharpe, Mon. Ale. pi. 57. 
Common, chiefly about estuaries. 
[Meeta Myo, Amherst, Tavoy (J9.)0 

*80. H. smye^eksis (J. 129). 
E. smyrnensis (Linn.), Sharpe, Mon. Ale. pi. 59. 

The most common species of its genus, as generally throughout Southern 
Asia. 

[Eangoon, Tonghoo (JF. B.).] 



1875.] Kingfishers. 71 

*81. Satjeopatis chloeis (J. 132). 

Halcyon chloris (Bodd.), Sharpe, Mon. Ale. pi. 87. 
Common along the sea-coasts. 
[Amherst, Henza Basin (D.).] 

*82. Ceyx teidactyla (J. 133). 

Ceyx tridactyla (Pall.), Sharpe, Mon. Ale. pi. 40. Deiny-nyeen. 
Arakan, Tenasserim, Malacca. 

[Eastern Pegu hills (0.); between Tavoy and Meeta Myo, Karope, Ye 
(I).)-] 

*83. Alcedo bengalensis (J. 134). 
Aleedo.bengalensis } 6m., Sharpe, Mon. Ale. pi. 2. 
Common. 
[Eangoon, Tonghoo, Karen nee (W. R.); Thayet Myo {F.).~\ 

*84. A. ASIATICA. 
A. asiatiea, Swainson ; A. meningting, Horsfield ; Sharpe, Mon. Ale. pi. 5. 
Tenasserim provinces. It is remarked by Mr. W. T. Blanford, that 
Relargopsis burmannica, Halcyon smyrnensis, and Alcedo bengalensis, are 
apparently replaced in the Irawadi delta, where the water is salt, by P. 
amauroptera, M. pileata, and A. asiatiea. According to Heifer, Alcedo 
beryllina, Vieillot {lira, Horsfield), is also an inhabitant of the Tenasserim 
provinces, but I have never seen it even from the Malayan peninsula. The 
present, however, is one of the species which Heifer did procure. 

[This is probably A. beavani, "Walden, for Mr. Hume remarks that 
Amherst and Te examples are identical with individuals from various parts 
of India and from the Andamans. A. meningting, Horsf., the senior title of 
A. asiatiea, is a perfectly distinct species.] 

*85. Ceetle ettdis (J. 136). 
Ceryle rudis (Linn.), Sharpe, Mon. Ale. pi. 19. 
Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam, Malacca, South China. 
[Tonghoo (W. £.); Thayet Myo (0.).] 

[86. C. GUTTATA (J. 137). 

C. guttata (Vig.), Sharpe, Mon. Ale. pi. 18. 
Kollidoo, Pachaun (Z>.).] 



72 



Birds of Burma. 

Fam. Coraciadse. 

Rollers. 



[No. 1, 



*87. COEACIAS AFFZNTS (J. 124). 
Coracias affinis, McClelL, Gray and Mitchell, Gen. Birds, pi. 211, not good. Hgnet-kha. 

Generally diffused, and always typically coloured; whereas specimens 
from Tippera, Sylhet, Assam, and Lower Bengal are mostly crossed more or 
less with C. indica, showing every gradation from one to the other. Gould's 
figure assigned to C. affinis in his "Birds of Asia"* represents a hybrid of 
the kind ; and C. indica also interbreeds with C. garrula in localities where 
those two races meet. Eastward, the present species extends at least to 
Siam, 

[Rangoon, Tonghoo, Thayet Myo {W. .#.)•] 

*88. ElTEYSTOMUS OEIEOTALIS (J. 126). 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Malacca. 



Rf 



Fam. Meropidse. 
Beefeaters. 

*89. Meeops philippiihts (J. 118). 
Merops philippinus, Linn. ; Gould, B. As. pt. vii. pi. 2. 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam, Malacca, Sumatra, Java, Philippines, South 
China. The Philippine race does not, as has been asserted, differ in any 
respect. 

[Tonghoo (W. R.); Thayet Myo (0.).] 

*90. M. EKYTHEOCEPHALTIS (J. 119). 
M. erythrocephalus, Gm. ; Gould, B. As. pt. viii. pi. 13. 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam, Malacca. The Javanese M. quinticohr, 
Yieillot, is distinguished by having no rufous above the black pectoral band.f 

[Eangoon, Karen nee {W. &.); Thayet Myo (F). The Malaccan 
habitat is doubtful. For reasons already stated (Ibis, 1873, p. 301), 
Gmelin's title, taken from Brisson, cannot be adopted. If, however, the title 
of quinticohr, Yieillot, is to be used for the Javan race, the continental form 
must take the name of M. leschenaulti, Yieill. In either view the necessity 
of coining the new title of M. swinhoei, Hume, does not seem apparent.] 



* Part xxi. pi. 2. 



t P. Z. S. 1871, p. 348. 



— ■ 



Barhets. 



73 



*91. M. YIEIDIS (J. 117). 
M.viridis, Y&r. fer rug eiceps, Hodgson. 

Arakan, Tenasserim provinces, Siam. M. suniatranus, Raffles, occurs in 
Siam, and should be looked for in the Southern Tenasserim provinces. 
[Rangoon, Tonghoo hills, Karen hills {W. i2.).] 

*92. Ntctioeis'is atheetokti (J. 122). 
Nyctiornis athertonii (J. & S.), Gould, B. As. pt. ii. pi. 2. 
Tenasserim provinces. 
[Tonghoo, Karen hills ( W. R.).~\ 

93. N. AMICTA. 

Merops amictus y Temminck, P.C. 310; Swainson's Zool. 111., 2nd series, pi. 56 ; Gould, 
B. As. pt. ii. pi. 3 ; N. malaccensis^ Cabanis. 

Procured by Heifer, probably in Mergui province. 
[Near Zadee (D.). JV. malaccensis, Cab., was described from the young 
bird.] 

Tribe COCCYGES. 
Fam. Capitonidsa. 



*94. Megal^ma maeshalloetim (J. 191). 
Megalcema mars hallor um, Swinhoe ; Marshall's Mon. Cap. pi. 16 t Pko-goung. 

Arakan. 

[Karen hills (JF. R.). Mr. Hume has identified examples obtained by 
Mr. Davison at Kollidoo and Kyouknyat as belonging to M. virens (Bodd.), 
and not to the Himalayan bird.] 

*95. M. hodgsoot (J. 192). 
M. hodgsoni, Bp. ; M. lineata, Marshall's Mon. Cap. pi. 36, 37. 
Khasias, Arakan, Pegu, Tenasserim, Siam, Malacca (?), Java. 
' [Eangoon, Tonghoo, Yey-tho (W. R.); Thayet Myo (0.). Vieillot's 
title of Uneata cannot be applied.] 

*96. M. asiatica (J. 195). 

M. asiatica (Lath.) ; Marshall, Mon. Cap. pi. 29. Kok-kha-loung . 
Arakan, where not common. 
[Toughoo(JT. R.); Pahpoon, Kollidoo (2).).] 



74 



Birds of Burma. 



(-m. i, 



97. M. EKANKLINII (J. 196). 
M. franklinii (nobis) ; Marshall, Mon. Cap. pi. 24. 

Khasias, Tenasserim mountains. 

According to Col. Tickell, this species " swarms from 3000 to 5000 
feet elevation, not higher, nor lower, and from the first level it suddenly 
supplants M. Umata (if. hodgsoni?), the PoTcoung of the Burmese." 

[98. M. EAMSAYI. 
M. ramsayi, Walden, Ann. N. H. (4), 15, p. 400, June, 1875. 
Karen nee {W. JR.).'] 

*99. M. CYANOTIS. 

M. cyanotis (nobis) ; Marshall, Mon. Cap. pi. 33, fig. 3. 
Khasias, Tippera, Kachar, Arakan, Tenasserim provinces. 
[Karen Hills (W. R.).] 

[100. M. MYSTACOPHANUS. 
M. mystacophanus (Tem.), Marshall, Mon. Cap. pi. 19. 
Om-ben-gwen (B.).] 

[101. M. INCOGNITA. 
M. incognita, Hume, Str. Feath. ii. p. 442. 
Karope, Ye (D.).] 

*102. M. H2EMACEPHALA (J. 197). 
X. hcemacephala (L. S. Miiller) ; Marshall, Mon. Cap. pi. 42. 
Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam, Penang, Malacca, Philippines. 
[Eangoon, Tonghoo, Karen nee (W. JR.); Thayet Myo (O.).] 



Fam. PicidsB. 
"Woodpeckers. Theet-touh (generic). 

*103. Hemicekcus canente (J. 165). 
Picas canente, Lesson, Cent. Zool. t. 73. 

Arakan, Pegu, Tenasserim. This only differs from the South Indian 
JET. cordatus in being constantly larger. 

[Karen hills, from 500 to 4000 feet {W. JR.). Two males are sent by 
Mr. Kamsay. One has the head uniform deep black ; the other with a few 
buff markings on the feathers of the forehead and crown.] 



1875.] 



Woodpeckers. 



75 



*104. Alophokeepes guttukalis (J. 168). 
Pieus pulverulentus, Temminck, P.O. 389 ; Pieus gutturalis, Valenciennes. 

Arakan, Shan hills, Tenasserim, Malacca, Java. The largest of Asiatic 
"Woodpeckers. 

[Arakan and Pegu hills (0.); Tonghoo (Z.). Examples from Cochin- 
china in no way differ. According to Sundevall (Consp. Ay. Picinarum, 
p. 10, no. 23), Temminck's title has priority, and he quotes the year 
1825 as the date of publication. But there must be some mistake, for 
Sundevall refers to the 65th Livraison of the Recueil, whereas P. pulveru- 
lentus was described and figured in the 66th. Anyhow, Crotch (Ibis, 1868, 
p. 500) gives 1826 as the year in which both these Livraisons were published. 
Elsewhere (Ibis, 1871, p. 164, note) reasons are stated why, while the exact 
date of Yalenciennes' title remains undetermined, preference should be given 
to the one bestowed by Temminck.] 

105. Thkipostax ckaweubdii. 

Pieus erawfurdii, J. E. Gray, Griffith's English edition of Cuvier's "Animal Kingdom," 
Birds, vol. ii. p. 513, pi. 1 ; Semilophus feddeni, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxxii. p. 75 ; T.jerdoni, 
Cabanis, Mus. Heine, ii. p. 105. 
Upper Pegu. 
[Thayet Myo, Tonghoo ( W. JR.); Pahpoon, Xyouknyat (Z>.).] 

106. T. JAVEKSIS. 

P.javensis, Horsfield; Pieus leucog aster, Eeinwardt, Tern. P. C. 501. 
Mergui, Malacca, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Philippines. 

*107. Cheysocolaptes gutticeistatus (J. 166 par tim). 
Pieus guttaeristatus, Tickell $ ; Indopieus delesserti, Malherbe, Mon. Pieidce, pi. 64 ; 
Ibis, 1866, p. 355; 1872, p. 8. 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam, Malacca. 

[Yey-tho, Tonghoo {W. £.); Thayet Myo (F.); Arakan hills (O.). 
Tiekell's title has priority over Malherbe's and Hodgson's titles.] 

*108. Tioa jAYAirasrsis (J. 184). 

Pieus javanensis, Ljungh ; vide Lord Walden in Ibis, 1871, p. 170 ; Pieus tiga, Horsfield; 
Tig a intermedia^ Blyth. 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam, Java. Common. A smaller race (T. rufa, 
apud Stoliczka) occurring in the Malayan peninsula and Sumatra.* 

[Yey-tho, Eangoon, Tonghoo, Karen nee {W. R.)\ Thayet Myo (0.). 
Malaccan and Javan examples are smaller, otherwise identical.] 

* Vide Stoliczka, in J. A. S. B. xxxix. p. 289. 






76 Birds of Burma. [No. 1, 

109. Gecotus steiolatus (J. 171). 

Pegu, delta of the Irawadi (Blanford). 

[Tonghoo (Z.). The Ceylon and Malabar form of this species is con- 
siderably smaller than the Sub-Himalayan and Burman. A Ceylon example 
has the uropygium deep golden orange.] 

*110. G. VIELDAKFS. 
G. viridanus, nobis, J. A. S. B. xii. p. 1000. 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Pegu, Siam. Barely separable from G. dimidiatus 
of Sumatra and Java, but considered so by Lord "Walden.* 

[Tonghoo (W. B.). If considered identical with the Jayan bird, this 
Woodpecker must take the title of vittatus, Vieillot.] 

*111. G. OCCIPITALIS (J. 172). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. 

[Tey-tho, Tonghoo (W. It.); Thayet Myo (0.).] 

[112. Gechstus ekythkopygitjs. 

Gecinus erythropygius, D. G. Elliot, N. Archiv. 1865, p. 76, pi. iii.; G. erythropygius, 
Wardlaw Ramsay, P. Z. S. April 21, 1874, p. 212, pi. xxxv. {motu proprio) ; G. nigrigenis, 
Hume, P. A. S. B. May, 1874, p. 106. 

Foot of Karen hills, also at 600 feet, Tonghoo (TF. B.); hills north of 
Pahpoon (Z>.).] 

*113. Chkysophlegma flavhsttjcha. (J. 173). 
Chrysophlegma fiavinucha (Gould) ; B. As. pt. i. pi. 5. 
Arakan, Tonghoo. 

[Tey-tho, Karen hills, Tonghoo {W. B.); Thayet Myo (O.); neigh- 
bourhood of Pahpoon (Z?.).] 

*114. C. CHLOEOLOPHUS (J. 174). 

Khasias, Arakan, Tenasserim provinces. 

[Tonghoo, Karen nee hills, at 3000 feet elevation ( W. JR.) ; Thayet 
Myo (O.).] 

115. C. MEKTALIS. 
Picus mentalisj Temminck, P.O. 384. 
Mergui, Malayan peninsula, Sumatra. 



* Proc. Zool. Soc. 1866, p. 539. 



1875.] 



Woodpeckers. 



11 



116. C. PTOTICEUS. 
Picus puniceus, Horsfield, Tern. P.O. 423. 
Mergui, Malayan peninsula, Sumatra, Java. 

[117. Yeotlia pyeehotis (J. 176). 
Tonghoo hills ( W. R.) ; Pahpoon (Z).).] 

^1 18. GrECIJSTULUS VIEIDIS. 
Gecinulus viridis, Bl., J. A. S. B. xxxi. p. 341. 
Upper Pegu. 

[Tonghoo hills, at 2500 feet (W. JR.); Pahpoon, Kyouknyat, Pahchaun, 
Ye, Meeta Myo (D.).] 

^1 19. MlCEOPTEEKUS PHAIOCEPS (J. 178), 

Arakan, Tenasserim. 

[Eangoon, Tonghoo (W. JR.); Thayet Myo (0.). Malherbe's title of 
rufinotus must be adopted.] 

*120. M. EUEMAKKICUS. 

M. burmannicus, A. Hume, P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 71. 
Thayet-myo. 

[This is nothing but M. rufinotus, and has no claim to rank as a distinct 
species. Mr. Blyth had no opportunity of examining Thayet Myo examples.] 

*121. Meigklyptes jtigfulaeis. 
Meiglyptes jugularis, nobis, J. A. S. B. xiv. p. 195. 
Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam. 

[Arakan and Pegu hills (0.). Included by Sundevall (t. e. p. 93, no. 4) 
among his species dubice, yet an undoubtedly distinct form.] 

*122. M. TEISTIS. 
M. tristis, Horsfield; Tern. P.O. 197, fig. 1. 
Mergui, Pinang, Malacca, Sumatra, Java. 

*123. Dekdeotypes macei (J. 157). 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Malacca. 

[Karen hills, at 3000 feet, Karen nee, at 4000 feet elevation {W. .#.).] 

*124. D. ATEATUS. 

Picus atratus, nobis, J. A. S. B. xviii. p. 803, xxviii. p. 412. 
Tenasserim mountains. 
[Karen hills, at 3000 and 4000 feet. Iris, in male, dark brown j bill 



78 



Birds of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



horny, mandible whitish ; legs, greenish plumbeous (W. B.); pine forests 
north of Pahpoon (D.). An old male exhibits a carmine tinge on some of 
the pectoral feathers.] 

125. D. ANALIS. 

Pieus analis, Horsfield; Picus pectoralis, nobis, J. A. S. B. xv. p. 15. 
Tonghoo, where the occurrence of this Javanese species is remarkable. 
[Tonghoo (X.); Karen nee ( W. B.); Thayet Myo (F.). Identical with 
Javan examples.] # 

126. LlOPIPO MAHEATTEl^SIS (J. 160). 
Picus blanfordi, nobis, J. A. S. B. xxxii. p. 75. 

Tonghoo. As compared with specimens from Central India, those from 
Pegu have more of white on the plumage, but Viscount Walden informs me 
that in this respect they resemble others from Ceylon. 

[Thayet Myo (F.) ; Tonghoo (W. JR.).'] 

*127. YUKCTPICUS CAKICAPILLTJS. 
Picus canicapillus, nobis, J. A. S. B. xiv. p. 197. 
Khasias, Arakan, Tenasserim provinces. Common. 
[Tonghoo, Karen nee at 4000 feet (W. B.) ; Thayet Myo {F.).~] 

128. Yivia ii^isroMiKATA (J. 186). 
Picumnus innominatus (Burton) ; Gould, B. As. pt. xxii. pi. 13. 
Tenasserim mountains. 
[Karen hills at 2000 feet {W. B.).~\ 

*129. Sasta ochbacea (J. 187). 
Sasia ochracea, Hodgson; Gould, B. As. pt. xxii. pi. 14. 
Arakan, Tenasserim. 
[Tonghoo hills (W.R.).~\ 

[130. S. AB1TOBMIS. 
Picumnus abnormis, Tern., P.O. 371, fig. 3. 

Stated by Mr. Hume (Str. Feath. ii. p. 472) to have been obtained by 
Mr. Davison near Ye.] 

*13'1. Iyistx toeqtjilla (J. 188). 

Arakan. 

[Karen nee (W. B.) ; Thayet Myo (O.),] 






1875.] Cuckoos. 79 

Fam. Cuculidse. 

Cuckoos. 
*132. HlEEOCOCCTX SPAEVEEIOIDES (J. 207).* 

Arakan, Malacca. 

[Rangoon, Yey-tho, Karen nee at 4000 feet {W. JR.); Pahpoon (Z>.).] 

133. H. vaeius (J. 205). 

This species can hardly but occur, as also H. nisicolor (J. 206) ; but in 
the Malay countries they would seem to be replaced by S. hyperythrus, 
Gould,f 0I> which Cuculus fug ax, Horsfield, is the young bird. H. varius is 
common in the Dacca district of Eastern Bengal, and Jerdon gives it from 
"Burma and Malacca," but I do not remember to have seen a specimen 
from the eastern side of the Bay of Bengal. 

134. Cuculus miceopteetis (J. 203) and C. aefinis (J. 204). 

These differ only in size, and have the same note hholcatdlco, which I 
often heard in the vicinity of Moulmein during the rainy season, but did not 
obtain a specimen. Both races occur in Java, and C. affinis occurs both in 
Nipal and the Malayan peninsula. Of necessity both of them must inhabit 
the Indo-Chinese countries. I have never seen a specimen of intermediate 
dimensions. 

[Mr. Hume (Str. Feath. iii. p. 79) makes the important statement that 
the above numbers of Jerdon belong respectively to the male and female. If 
this be so, a hitherto much disputed question is satisfactorily settled.] 

135. C. CANOET7S (J. 199). 

A specimen of this bird, in the plumage of immaturity, was shot in my 
presence, in the garden of the Commissioner, at Moulmein. Mr. Wallace 
obtained it in Timor. 

[Karen nee at 3500 feet (W. It.) ; Prome {Raihes).'] 

136. C. steiatus (J. 200). 

C. striatus, Drapiez ; Ibis, 1866, p. 359 ; 1872, p. 12. 
The range of this Cuckoo extends from the Himalaya to China and 

* Mr. Hume gives S. strenuus, Gould, from Thayet Myo. P. A. S. B. 1872, p. 71. 
[The Thayet Myo example of the supposed Philippine H. strenuus, here alluded to, was 
nothing hut E. sparverioides.] 
t B. As. pt. viii. pi. 15. 



80 



Birds of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



N". Australia. I have seen two Tenasserim examples of it. G. poliocephalus 
can also hardly but occur, as examples from Java differ in no respect from 
others obtained in the Himalayas, Nilgiris, and mountains of Ceylon. 



137. C. so^ekatii (J. 202). 

Tenasserim provinces, Malayan peninsula and islands, 
bird, I have only seen it from Malabar and Ceylon.* 
[ThayetMyo(JT. J2.).] 



As an Indian 



*138. Cacomajsttis passekiotjs (J. 209). 
Cuculus passerinus, Vahl; Polyphasia rufiventris, Jerdon, Ibis, 1872, p. 15. 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam, Hainan, Pinang. Eeplaced by a smaller 
race ( G. threnodes) at Malacca. 

[Thayet Myo, Yey-tho, Tonghoo, Karen nee ( W. R.). C. passerinus is 
distinct from G. rufiventris, the correct title of the species Mr. Blyth refers 
to. While there is no record of G. passerinus ever having been found in 
Eurma, G. rufiventris is there very common.] 

*139. SUEISTCULUS LXJGUBRIS (J. 210). 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam, Pinang, Java. 

[Tonghoo hills, Yey-tho, Karen nee {W. JR.). Javan, continental, and 
Ceylon birds are identical.] 

*140. Cheysococcyx maculatus (J. 211). 

Cuculus malay anus, Raffles, apud Gray and Mitchell, Gen. Birds, pi. 117. 
Arakan, Tenasserim. Mr. Gould distinguishes a smaller race (<7. 
scliomlurgki) from Siam.f 
[Tonghoo (Z.).] 

141. C. XAOTHOEHY^CHUS. 

C. xanthorhynchus, Horsfield, Zool. Res. in Java, pi. . 

Procured by Heifer, probably in Mergui province, being the supposed 
new species of Ghalcites noticed by Jameson (J. A. S. E. viii. p. 243). 
Malacca, Sumatra, Java, Philippines. 

* According to Lord Walden, the species "Penthoeeryx pravatus (Horsfield), which 
inhabits Malacca, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo, is considerably smaller than P. sonneratii 
(Latham) of India and Ceylon." Ibis, 1872, p. 367. Vide admeasurements, he. cit. 

f P. Z. S. 1864, p. 73. 



1875.] 



Cuckoos. 



81 



142. ElJDYNAMIS CHINENSIS. 
Eudynamis chinensis and E. malayana, Cab. Mus. Hein, iv. p. 52; Walden, Ibis 
1870, p. 339. 

ISTipal, Tenasserim, Siam. 

[Thayet Myo, Rangoon, Tonghoo (W. R.). E. malayana is the correct 
title. Malaccan individuals are identical.] 

*143. COCCTSTES C0E0MANDFS (J. 213). 
Cuculus coromandus (Linn.) ; Gould, B. As. pt. vi. pi. 3. 
Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam, Malay countries generally. 
[Thayet Myo, Eangoon ( W. JR.).'] 

144. C. jacobinus (J. 212). 

This common African and Indian species abounds in Upper Pegu ; but I 
have seen it from no other locality eastward of the Bay of Bengal. 

[Thayet Myo ( JF. 5.).] 

145. PhOEKICOPHAES EEYTHE0GNATHT7S. 

Phoenicophaes erythrognathus, Hartlaub, Verz. Brem. Samml. p. 95. 
Tenasserim provinces, Malayan peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo. 

146. Zanclostomtts javantcus. 

Phcenicophaus javanicus, Horsfield, Zool. Res. in Java, pi. — . 
Tenasserim provinces, Malayan peninsula, Sumatra, Java. 

147. Z. DIAEDI. 

Melias diardi, Lesson, Traite, p. 132. 
Mergui, Pinang, Malacca, Sumatra. 

*148. Z. teistis (J. 215). 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam, Cambodja, Hainan, Pinang, Malacca. A 
very common species. 

[Rangoon, Tonghoo, Tonghoo hills, Karen nee (W. R.) ; Thayet 
Myo {0.).-] 

*149. Centeopfs ettfipennis (J. 217). 

Generally diffused. 

[Thayet Myo, Karen hills, Tonghoo ( W. R.). Mr. Hume (Str. Feath. 
i. p. 454) has separated the race which inhabits the Doon, the neighbour- 
hood of Dacca, and Thayet Myo, under the specific title of C. intermedins. 
These Burman examples bear out Mr. Hume's remarks, and may fairly be 
considered distinct from the common crow pheasant of Peninsular India.] 

6 






82 Birds of Burma. [No. 1, 

[150. C. EURYCEKCT7S. 
G. eurycercus, A. Hay, J. A. S. B. 1845, p. 551. 

Introduced by Mr. Hume in his list of birds of the Tenasserim provinces 
(Str. Feath. ii. p. 473), but without the exact locality being stated. Two 
distinct species seem to be included by him under the title. The smaller 
may possibly be C. reetunguis.~\ 

% *151. C BEITOALEKSIS (J. 218). 

Also generally diffused. 
[Karen nee {W. R.).~\ 

[152. Rni^OETHA CHLOROPEUEA. 
Cuculus chlorophceus. Baffles, Tr. L. S. xiii. p. 288. 
Lemyne, Thayet-chaung, near Meeta Myo ($.)•] 



Fam. Trogonidse- 

Trogons. 

153. HaEPACTES HODGSOM (J. 116). 
Harpactes hodgsoni; Ibis, 1866, p. 342 ; Gould, B. As. pt. xvii. pi. 1. 
Arakan, Tenasserim. 
[Karen nee at 4000 feet ( W. JR.) ; Thayet Myo (i^ 7 .).] 

*154. H. oeesciijs. 

Trogon oreskios, Tern. ; Gould, B. As. pt. xvii. pi. 3 ; Mon. Trogonidce, pi. 34 ; Beavan, 
Ibis, 1869, p. 407 ; P. Z. S. 1866, p. 538. 

Arakan, Tenasserim provinces, Siam, Cambodja, Java. 

According to Col. Tickell, JEarpades hodgsoni is " common on the hills 
from 3000 feet upwards. Below that it is replaced by JET. orescius. It flies 
in small flocks, and is active and vociferous on the wing, solitary and quiet 
during the heat of the day, sitting in the shade." 

[Karen hills ( W. R.).~\ 

Fam. Caprimulgidse. 

Night-jars. 
^155. Lyjtcoestis ceevunticeps. 

Lyncomis cerviniceps, Gould, Icones Avium, pt. ii. pi. 4. Ilgnet byeen ; Tween-dweng- 
nghat. 

Generally diffused over the forest-region of British Burma, from Arakan 

to Mergui. It has recently been procured at Darjeeling. In Upper Martaban 



1875.] 



Night-jars. 



83 



I remarked that on their first appearance, towards evening, these superb 
Night-jars would seek their food high in the air, descending gradually within 
gunshot, and finally sweeping about close to the ground, in considerable 
numbers, as it became too dark to fire at them. 
[Tonghoo (£.) ; Pahpoon (Z>.).] 

*156. Capkimulgus indtcus (J. 107). 

Generally diffused, extending southward to Malacca and Sumatra. 

[157. C. JOTAKA. 
C.jotaha, Tern. & Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, Aves, p. 37, pi. 12, 13. 
Tonghoo (Z.).] 

*158. C. maceotous (J. 110). 

Indo-Chinese and Malay countries generally, extending to N. Australia. 
[Tonghoo (W.E.); Thayet Myo (F.). Tonghoo examples very much 
larger than typical Javan individuals. Wing, 8 ; tail, 7.] 

*159. C. MONTICOLT7S (J. 114). 

Indo-Chinese countries generally, extending eastward to South China. 
[Tonghoo [W. 11.) ; Amherst, Yeboo, Pahpoon (2).).] 

[160. C. ALBIKOTATUS (J. 109). 

Tonghoo {W. £.).] 

*161. C. ASIATICUS (J. 112). 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam. One or more species of Batrachostomus 
must needs occur, though as yet overlooked * According to Mason, the 
Burmese call Night-jars mya-wot (earth-crouchers), while the Arakan name 
for them is Hgnet-hyen (outside-bird). 

[Thayet Myo ( W. i2.).] 

[162. Batkachostomtjs hodgsoni (J. 106). 
Otothrix hodgsoni, G. P. Gray, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 101, pi. 152. 
" Karen nee, at 6000 feet. Iris, marbled buff; bill, light madder; legs, 
light madder, tinged with violet" ( W. R.). 

A male, in grey mottled plumage, and closely resembling the type. 

* Mason, however, gives Podargus affinis, Blyth, without mentioning any locality. 
Probably Otothrix hodgsoni, G. R. Gray, if the two really differ. 



84 



Birds of Burma. 



[No.l, 



The other known species of this genus within the Indian region are : — 

1. B. javanensis, Horsf. = P. cornutus, Tem.=.B. stellatus, Gould. 
Malacca, Java, Borneo, Sumatra. 

2. B. affinis, Blyth=P. parvulus, Tem.=zB. castaneus, Hume. Borneo, 
Malacca, Darjeeling. 

3. B. rnoniliger, Laj^ard^-Z?. punctatus, Hume. Ceylon, Malabar. 

4. B. stictopterus, Cab.=:Z?. stellatus, Gould, ap. Salvadori. Malacca, 
Borneo. I have some doubts whether this is not a phase of B. javanensis. 
In dimensions the two do not materially differ. The markings are similar, 
but the colouring is dark rufous brown, and not chestnut. I have never met 
with examples of this species, if it be one, or of B. javanensis in grey 
speckled plumage. But grey examples of B. affinis and B. moniliger are as 
common as rufous individuals. 

5. B. auritus, Gould. Malacca. In rufous-brown, or in grey plumage, 
very common ; but I have never met with it in chestnut plumage.] 

Tribe CYPSELI. 



Fam. Cypselid83. 

Swifts. 

*163. AcAKTHYLIS GXOANTEA (J. 96). 
Cypselus giganteus, Hasselt ; P.C. 364. 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Andamans, Pinang, Nilgiris, Ceylon. 
[Tonghoo (X.). Chcetura indica, Hume, is synonymous.] 

164. Cypselus pacifictjs. 

Hirundo pacifica, Latham ; C. vittatus, Jardine and Selby, III. Orn. 2nd series, pi. 39 ; 
C. australis, Gould. 

Upper Assam, Kachar, Tenasserim provinces, Pinang, China, Australia. 
[ThayetMyo (0.).] 

*165. C. PALMAETJM (J. 102). 
Pyan-hlwa, Mason. 

The common Indian Palm Swift abounds in the Indo-Chinese countries, 
where also (though not hitherto detected within the limits of British Burma) 
must needs also occur the allied C. infutnatus, Sclater ( C. tinus, Swinhoe ; 
C. tectorum, Jerdon),* which inhabits the'Naga and Garo hills, was obtained 

* Ibis, 1871, pi. x. ; Gould, B. As. pt. xxiv. pi. 15. 



1875.] 



Swifts. 



85 



by Mr. Swinhoe in Hainan, and was originally described by Mr. Sclater from 
Borneo. It is somewhat remarkable that C. suhfurcatus, nobis,*' has not 
hitherto been observed in the Indo-Chinese countries, though a resident 
species at Pinang. The allied western species (C. affinis), so common in 
India, is, however included by Mason. 

[The title, C. batassiensis, J. E. Gray (Cuv. An. King. (Griffith), Aves, ii. 
p. 60, 1829), founded on Latham's Balassian Swift (Gen. Hist. vii. p. 329), 
takes precedence over C. palmarurn, J. E. Gray (Hardw. 111. Ind. Zoo. i. 
pi. 35, fig. 1, 1832).] 

[166. C. IKFUMATITS. 

C. infumatus, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 602, 

Tonghoo (W.H.); very common in Upper Pegu (0.); common in 
Tenasserim (Hume).'] 

167. COLLOCALIA PIJCIPHAaA (J. 103). 

Hirundo fuciphaga, Thunberg ; "Wallace, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 384; Ibis, 1863, p. 323; 
1866, p. 341 ; G. Unchi, apud Ball, J. A. S. B. xli. pt. 2, p. 376. 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Andamans. 

"The Swiftlets which build the edible nests," remarks Mason, "are so 
numerous in the limestone caves on the islets and islands of the Tavai coast, 
that the Government revenue from the birds'-nest farm in 1847 was nearly 
eleven thousand rupees ; but in 1849 it was more than four thousand rupees 
less. At Mergui they are not so numerous. " 

[As has been elsewhere shown (Ibis, 1874, p. 132), this Swift must take 
the title of francica, Gm. Mr. Wallace was the first author who published 
the opinion that examples from India, Ceylon, Bourbon, Mauritius, the 
whole of the Malay islands, the Louisiade Archipelago, New Caledonia, 
Tahiti, and the Marianne islands, do not specifically differ. That naturalist 
not considering the variations in size and slight variations in colouration 
which are to be found occurring sufficient to justify specific separation. 
Examples (C. spodiopygia) from Ovalau and Mango island (Fiji) can hardly 
be separated.] 

168. C. LIXCHI. 

C. linchi, Horsfield; "Wallace, P. Z. S. ; Voy. "Nwara," 1863, p. 384, Vogel, t. ii. f. 2. 
Mergui Archipelago, JSTicobars, Java, etc. 
[This is the true Hirundo fuciphag a y Thunb.] 

* J. A. S. B. xviii. p, 807. 






86 



Birds of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



^169. Maceopteeyx coeokatus (J. 104). 
Eirundo coronata, Tickell; Gould, B. As. pt. xi. pi. 2. 
Pegu, Siam. Eeplaced by If. klecho in the Malayan peninsula. 
[Thayet Myo, Tonghoo, Karen nee, at 1700 feet {JV. R.)\ Ngabeemah, 
pine forests north of Kollidoo, Henza JBasin (JD.).~\ 



Suborder PASSERES. 



Fam. Corvidse. 
Crows, Jays, etc. 



*170. COEYUS YAILLANTII (J. 660). 
Corvus vaillaniii, Lesson. 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Malacca. Generally diffused in pairs throughout 
the forests.* 

[Pegu ( 0.).] 

*171. C. SPLENDENS (J. 663). 
Kyie-gan. 

At Akyab this Crow abounds, and also (as I was informed by Mr. W. 
T. Blanford) at Mandell, high up the Irawadi. At Khyouk Phoo, a party 
of seven individuals made their appearance on the 7th December, 1856, 
which subsequently stocked the neighbourhood ; but to what extent the race 
may have spread at the present time I am unaware. Elsewhere in Arakan 
this Crow has still no representative ; but across the mountains which divide 
that province from Pegu, again at Rangoon, Moulmein, Tavoy, and as far 
South as Mergui, as also in Siam, it is replaced by a wholly black race, quite 
similar in form and habit, but having a much shriller voice (a sort of shrieking 
caw), if possible still more inharmonious than that of the other. There is 
just a very faint tinge of ash-colour on the nape and breast, where the com- 
mon Indian Crow is cinereous ; but this must be specially looked for to be 
remarked. Though abundant about Mergui station, I have not seen it from 
any locality further south ; and I have been assured that it does not occur 
at Pinang, Malacca, or Singapore. This melanoid race of C. splendens is 
erroneously referred to C. culminatus (i.e. C. vaittantii) by Mason, as it also 

* For>ariation of size in this species, ef. W. T. Blanford, J. A. S. B. li. pt. 2, p. 68. 



1875.] 



Crows, Jays ^ etc. 



87 



is by the late Sir E. H. Schomburgk.* Sir A, Phayre, referring to it as the 
common Crow of the branches of the Irawadi, states that "away from the 
river, on the hills, there is a Crow of the same size, but not with the same 
tinge on the neck, being of an uniform black throughout."! As regards the 
Indian bird, an unknown donor has favoured me with two skins differing 
remarkably in size, but in no other respect. Length of closed wing 11 in. 
in the larger specimen, 10 in. in the smaller; of middle tail-feathers, re- 
spectively, 6J in. and 5£ in; tarsus If in. and 1£ in. Some Ceylon 
specimens now (1872) living in the London Zoological Gardens are decidedly 
smaller, and rather darker coloured than Bengal or Akyab specimens ; and 
I have seen other specimens from Ceylon, which again were darker, coloured 
and approximately melanous % 

[Rangoon, Tonghoo ( W, i?.). The melanoid variety referred to has 
recently been separated and named C. insolens, Hume (Str. Feath. ii. p. 480). 
The late Mr. G. E. Gray (H. List, ii. p. 14) restricted Yieillot's title of 
splendens (erroneously referring it to Temminck) to a supposed Javan and 
Sumatran species of Corvus, and adopted Hodgson's title of impudicus for the 
Indian. The type of Le Choucas gris du Bengale, G* splendens, Yieillot 
(N. D. viii. p. 441, 1817), came from the Indian continent, and no representa- 
tive race even of that species is known as existing in either Java or Sumatra, 
Temminck's statement notwithstanding. 0. impudicus, Hodgson, must 
continue, as hitherto, a synonym of C. splendens, Vieillot. Another 
curious variety of this Crow occurs in Tonghoo. Two examples of it 
are of an isabelline cream colour ; the urapygium and abdomen being dark 
brown. I do not, however, propose to name it as belonging to a distinct 
species.] 

Magpie Group. 

172. Pica media. 

Pica media, Blytb, J. A. S. B. xiii. p. 393; P. sericea, Gould; P. caudaia, apud 
J. Anderson, Exped., p. 259. 

Ehamo, China, Hainan, and Formosa. 

* Ibis, 1864, p. 252. 

t J. A. S. B. xxii. p. 76, xxiv. p. 479. 

% Some time ago I received a packet containing two skins of G. splendens, coloured as 
in India. Wing, respectively 11 in. and 9J in. ; tail, 6| and 5 J in. ; beak to forehead 2 in. 
and If in. The latter are probably the admeasurements of the Ceylon race. 






Birds of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



*173. Dendeocitta euea (J. 674). 

Common throughout the Irawadi valley, in Pegu {Blanford) ; also in the 
vicinity of Moulmein. 

[Rangoon, Tonghoo, Yey-tho {W. R.) ; Thayet Myo {F.) ; Tenasserim 
provinces (-D.)O 

*174. D. HIMALAYENSIS (J. 676). 
D. himalayensis, nobis, Ibis, 1865, p. 45. 

Mountains of Arakan, and probably those of the Indo-Chinese countries 
generally. 

[Tonghoo hills, Karen nee (W. R.); north of Pahpoon (/).)•] 

« 

*175. Ceypsiehota vaeians. 

Corvus varians, Latham ; Lev. Ois d'Afr. pi. 56 ; Phrenotrix temia, Horsfield, Zool. 
Res. in Java, pi. — . 

Prome, Bassein, common in the neighbourhood of Moulmein, Lower 
Siam, Java. I have never seen this species from the Malayan peninsula, 
though it is cited from Malacca by Herr v. Pelzeln, which I strongly suspect 
to be a mistake. 

[Rangoon, Tonghoo, Yey-tho (W.R.)\ Tenasserim provinces {D.). The 
Malaccan habitat is certainly erroneous. This is another peculiar Javan 
species, which re-appears north of Province Wellesley. It has long since 
been compared and specifically identified with Javan individuals.] 

*176. C. CTTCULIATA. 

C. cucuttata, Jerdon, Ibis, 1862, p. 20 ; Gould, B. As. pt. xv. pi. 3. 
Thayet Myo, and the dry country above the British frontier. Not seen 
in Lower Pegu {Blanford). 
[Thayet Myo ( W. R.).~\ 

[177. Temntieus leucopteetjs. 
Glaueopis leucoplerus, Tern. P. C. 265. 
Meeta Myo (Z>.).] # 

*178. TJeocissa magnieosteis. 
Psilorhinus magnirostris, nobis ; Gould, B. As. pt. xiii. pi. 3. 
Mountains of Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam. 
[Tonghoo, Karen nee {W. .#.).] 



1875.] Starlings. 89 

*179. Cissa sinensis (J. 673). 
Coracias chinensis, Bodd. ; Gould, B. As. pt. ix. pi. 8. 
Arakan, Tenasserim provinces, China (?). 
[Tonghoo, Karen hills {W. R.)\ Thayet Myo (0.).] 

[180. Garrulus leucotis. 
G. leucotis, Hume, P. A. S. B. 1874, p. 106. 

Tonghoo, Karen nee ; very generally distributed both in the hills and in 
the plains of the Tonghoo province (W. -#.).] 

Fam. Sturnidse. 

Starling family. 

Subfam. Eulabetdoe (True Mainas). 

*181. ElILABES INTERMEDIA (J. 693). 
Gracula intermedia, A. Hay; cf. Stoliezka, J. A. S. B. xxxix. pt. 2, p. 327. 

Arakan, Tenasserim provinces, Siam. The common "Hill Maina" of 
Northern India ; that of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands now considered to 
be different. 

[Rangoon, Tonghoo ( W. JR.). Perfectly distinct from JE.javanmsisJ] 

182. Ampeliceps coeonatus. 
Ampeliceps coronatus, nobis, J. A. S.B. xi. p. 194, xv. p. 32; Gray and Mitchell, 
Gen. Birds, pi. 81. 

Tonghoo, Ye, Mergui, Cochin China. 
[Tonghoo (Z.); South of Moulmein (D.).l 

Subfam. S turning (Starlings, etc.). 

*183. AcEIDOTHEEES TEISTIS (J. 684). 
Za-yet-mouk. 

Arakan, Pegu, Tenasserim. 
[Rangoon (W. JR.); Thayet Myo (0.).] 

*184. A. GiNaiNiANus (J. 685). 

Tenasserim provinces. Though common in Upper India, as remarked 
by Jerdon, "it certainly does not occur in Southern India, notwithstanding 
its specific name, taken from Gingi, south of Madras." 






90 Birds of Burma. [No. 1, 

*185. A. ftjscus (J. SZQpartim*). 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Pinang, Malacca, Hainan. 

[Eangoon, Tonghoo (W. i2.).] 

[186. A. SIAMENSIS. 
A. siamensis, Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 303. 
"Karen nee, at 3000 feet. Iris, pale chocolate; bill, orange-yellow; 
legs, dusky yellow" (W. J2.).] 

*187. Stubnopastoe contea (J. 683). 
Sturnopastor contra, var. superciliaris, nobis, J. A. S. B. xxxii. p. 77. 
Khasias, Thayet Myo, Tavoy, Siam. 

About Tavoy it is particularly abundant, and, as Mason remarks, "is often 
seen perched on the back of the Buffalo, gathering insects." 
[Tonghoo {W.R.).~\ 

188. S. NIGBICOLLIS. 

Gracula nigricollis, Paykull, Act. Holm, xxviii. pi. 9 ; Pastor temporalis, Tern. 
Bhamo, Lower Siam, South China. 

189. Stijenia buemanntca. 

Sturnia burmannica, Jerdon, Ibis, 1862, p. 21 ; Pastor peguanus, Lesson, (?) the 
young (?). 

Thayet Myo and Ava; more common above the British frontier than 
below it {Blanford). 

[Tonghoo, Karen nee, Thayet Myo (W. JR.). A sordid tawney- white 
albino variety of this species is among the Thayet Myo examples.] 

*190. S. PAG0DAETJM (J. 687). 

Arakan. 

*191. S. MALABAEICA (J. 688). 

Arakan, Pegu, Tenasserim. 

[This species does not appear to inhabit Upper Pegu, being replaced by 
the following.] 

* The true A. mahrattensis (Sykes), of South India, has been received at the London 
Zoological Gardens. It has the bill wholly yellow, white irides ; a less developed frontal 
crest, and more of white tipping the middle tail-feathers. A. leucocephalus, a very distinct 
species, from Cochin China, is described in the Ibis, 1870, p. 185. Another allied species 
from Siam is distinguished by Mr. Swinhoe as A. siamensis (P. Z. S. 1863, p. 303). 



^ 



■m 



1875.] 



Weaver Birds. 



91 



192. S, KEMOKICOLA. 

S. nemoricola, Jerdon, Ibis, 1862, p. 22. 
Thayet Myo. 

[Rangoon, Tonghoo (W. H.). T. leucopterus, Hume (Str. Feath. ii. 
p. 480, note) appears to be synonymous.] 

193. S. sinensis. 

Oriolus sinensis, Gmelin ; PI. Enl. 617 ; Pastor elegans. Lesson, Belanger, Voyage, pi. 6. 
Pegu {Lesson) ; China. 

[That this species winters in Pegu is suggested by Mr. Swinhoe (P.Z.S. 
1871, p. 384), but the fact has yet to be established.] 

194. Calobkts datirica. 

Turdus dauricus et Gracula sturnina } Gmelin ; Pastor malayensis y Eyton ; PI. Enl. 
627, %. 2. 

Mergui, Malacca, Dauria. 

[This bird can hardly be placed in the genus Calornis. It is more 
nearly allied to the members of Sturnia. Its oldest specific title is stamina, 
Pallas. It is difficult to decide what species is meant to be depicted in 
PI. Enl. 627, fig. 2.] 

195. C. AEFX1STS. 

0. affinis, A. Hay, J. A. S. B. xv. pp. 36, 369. 
Tippera, Arakan, Nicobar Islands. 

196. C. CHALYBEA. 

Turdus chahjbeus et T. strigatus, Horsfield; T. insidiator, Raffles, Tern. P.C. 199. 
figs. 1, 2. 

Mergui, Malacca, Sumatra, Java. 

[If the Mergui Calornis belongs to the Malaccan and Sumatran species, 
it must take the title of insi&iator, Eaffles, until it has been shown that the 
Javan Calornis belongs to the same species.] 

[197. Saeaglossa spilopteea (J. 691). 
Karen hills at 2000 feet, Tonghoo {W. J2.).] 

Fam. Ploceidse. 
Weaver-Birds. 

198. Ploceus JAVAKE^SIS. 
LoxiajavanensiS) Lesson, Traite, p. 446. 

Pegu, Siam, Java, Lombok. Observed by myself in Kangoon station. 
[Rangoon, Tonghoo (JIT. R.)\ Thayet Myo (0.).] 



m 



92 



Birds of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



*199. P. philippics (J. 694). 
T. baya, nobis ; cf. W. T. Blanford, J. A. S. B. xli. pt. 2, p. 167. Tsa-ghaung-kwet. 

Arakan, Lower Pegu, Malacca, Sumatra, not Philippines. Attaches its 
pensile nests to the projecting thatch of dwelling-houses in Kangoon, as duly 
noticed by Jerdon. 

[Rangoon, Tonghoo (W. JR.); Thayet Myo (0.).] 

*200. P. MANYAE (J. 695). 

Arakan, Thayet Myo, Siam, Java. 

201. P. BE^GALENSIS (J. 696). 

Thayet Myo, Ava. 

Fam. Astrildidae. 

Waxbills, Amadavats, etc. 

202. Padda oeyzivoea. 

Loxia oryzivora, Lin. ; Edwards, pi. 41. 

The well-known "Java Sparrow" of British dealers in birds, which is 
extensively diffused over the Malay countries, was procured in Mergui 
province by Major Berdmore. Mr. Swinhoe notices it from Amoy, Hong- 
kong, and Shanghai ; but in the vicinity of those emporia it has probably 
escaped from captivity in the first instance, as it likewise has in that of 
Madras, in Madagascar, Zanzibar island, the Seychelles, St. Helena, Celebes, 
and the Philippines. 

*203. Mtjota etjbeimgea (J. 698). 

Arakan, Pegu, Tenasserim, South-west China. Common. Bornean speci- 
mens are similar to Indian and Burmese, having the black of the abdominal 
region and lower tail-coverts well developed ; but this black is much reduced 
in quantity, and sometimes nearly obsolete, in examples from Malacca and 
Sumatra. In the race inhabiting Celebes (M. hrunneiceps, "Walden), the 
black beneath is well developed, while that on the head and neck is much 
embrowned. The race with white underparts, having the black abdominal 
patch and lower tail-coverts (Edwards, pi. 355), has never been observed 
eastward of the Bay of Bengal, but occurs rarely in Lower Bengal, and 
prevalently (if not wholly) in South India and Ceylon, if. formosana, 
Swinhoe,* is yet another of these very slightly differing races, for which 
names are barely admissible. 

[Tonghoo {W.R.).\ 

* Ibis, 1865, p. 356. 



1875.J 



Finches. 



93 



*204. M. PTTNCTULAKIA (J. 699). 

Arakan, Pegu, Tenasserim, Siam. The true Indian race, as distinguished 
from the kindred M. nisoria (Tern.), which inhabits the Malayan peninsula, 
and has ash-coloured upper tail-coverts. 

[Rangoon, Tonghoo (W. R.). The Burman spotted Munia, as repre- 
sented by Mr. Ramsay's examples, belongs to M. sul-undulata, Godwin- 
Austen (J. A. S. B. xliii. p. 370, May 6, 1874), M. super striata, Hume (Str. 
Feath. ii. p. 481, note, Oct. 1874), being a synonym.] 

*205. M. ACTTTICATTDA (J. 702). 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam, Malacca, Sumatra, China, Formosa. This 
species is the Fringilla muscardina of the Leyden Museum, a systematic 
name which is adopted for it by Mr. Gould. * In Japan it is extensively 
bred, white, partially white, and of pale colouring. 

[Tonghoo hills {W. R.); Thayet Myo (0.). I cannot find that Mr. 
Gould employed the title of muscardina in any part of the Z. S. Proceed- 
ings of 1859.] 

*206. M. LETJCONOTA (J. 701). 

Tau-tsa, " Forest Sparrow." 
Arakan. Of general diffusion. 

207. ASTEILDA AMANDAVA (J. 704). 

Mason includes this species (the common Speckled Waxbill, Amadavat, 
or Ldl Munia of India) without remark ; and Sir R. H. Schomburgk notices 
its occurrence in Siam, as also Mr. Gould (from specimens sent by Schom- 
burgk).! " Many are brought to Bangkok for sale. They frequent the rice- 
fields and pastures, and go in flocks." I do not remember having seen 
Burmese specimens ; but Jerdon notices that the range of the species extends 
to Assam and Burma, which Mr. W. T. Blanford assures me is the fact. 

Fam. Fringillidse. 

True Finches. 

Subfam. Passerine (Sparrows). 

*208. Passes ikdicus (J. 706). 
P. domesticus, var. (?), Ibis, 1867, p. 41. Mn-tsa (House Sparrow). 

Not uncommon at Akyab, but rare to the southward, in the jungle-clad 
provinces. Common, together with P. montanus, at Thayet Myo. Nubian 
specimens are undistinguishable. 



* P. Z. S. 1859, p. 150. 



t P. Z. S. 1859, p. 150. 



94 



Birds of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



*209. P. MONTANTTS (J. 710). 

The common house Sparrow everywhere to the eastward of the Bay of 
Bengal, its range extending southward to the Malay countries, and eastward 
to China and Japan, Formosa, and the Philippines. 

*210. P. ASSIMILIS. 
P. assimilis, Walden, An. M. N. H. (4), v. p. 218. 
Tonghoo. 

*211. P. FLAVEOLTJS. 

P.Jlaveolus, nobis, J. A. S. B. xxxi. p. 344. Passer jugiferus, Tem., Bonap. Consp. 
Av. i. p. 508. 

Arakan, Upper Pegu ; " abundant in the bushes near Thayet Myo ; also 
common further up the Irawadi" ( W. H. Blanford). Doubtful as an inhabi- 
tant of the Philippines, as alleged of P. jugiferus, which I identified with the 
present species in the Royal Museum of Natural History at Leyden. Accord- 
ing to Mason, this species "is found throughout the country," but he shows 
that he did not recognize P. montanus to be the common Sparrow of the 
country ! 

[" Iris, in ? , brown ; bill above, pinkish brown, below somewhat paler ; 
legs brownish. Karen nee " ( W. P.). One example, a female, has the 
mandibles crossed as in Loxia, the maxilla to the left, the mandible to the 
right.] 

Subfam. Fringillinje (Typical Fincbes). 

*212. Caepodacus erythrintjs (J. 738). 

Arakan. 

[Tonghoo (W.B.).-] 

Subfam. Emberizin;e (Buntings). 

*213. Euspiza ATJEEOLA (J. 723). 

Arakan, Pegu, Tenasserim, China. Occurs in large flocks in the interior, 
which migrate northward to breed. 

[Tonghoo (Z.). Mirafra flavicollis, McClell., as long since stated 
by Horsfield and Moore, is the female. E. flavogularis, Blyth, is also 
synonymous. In the H. List, No. 7679, McClelland's title is made to re- 
present a distinct species, and that of Mr. Blyth is treated as a synonym of 
M. flavicollis. 7 ] 



1875.] 



Zarlcs, Wagtails and Pipits. 



95 



214. Emberiza rtitila. 
Emberiza rutila, Pallas ; Tem. and Schl., Fauna Japonica, Aves, tab. 56B. 

A single specimen procured by Mr. W. H. Blanford, near Bassein. 
Another since obtained at Sikhim. 

[Tonghoo, Karen nee, Tsankoo hills {W. It.); neighbourhood of Pah- 
poon (-0.).] 

[215. E. fucata (J. 719). 

Tonghoo, Thayet Myo, in winter (0.).] 

[216. E. pusilla (J. 720). 
Karen nee, at 5500 feet ( W. £.).] 

*217. Melophus melanictertjs (J. 724). 
Arakan, Pegu, Siam, South China. 
[Karen nee (W. JR.).] 

Fam. Alaudidse. 
Larks. 

*218. Alatjda gttlgula (J. 767). 

Sent from Arakan, where probably not common. It is likely to be so 
in Upper Burma. 

219. Alattotjla raytal (J. 762). 

" Abundant on the banks of the Irawadi, in Upper Burma, frequenting 
the sand-dunes, to the colour of which its own plumage closely approximates. 
During the height of the flood of the Irawadi, I observed it feeding on the 
roads and plains in the station of Thayet Myo in small parties " (Jerdon). 

*220. MlRAFRA ASSAMICA (J. 754). 

Arakan. 

221. M. affinis (J. 755). 

Common at Thayet Myo ( W. JET. Blanford). 

[if. microptera, Hume (Str. Eeath. i. p. 483), is synonymous.] 

Fam. Motacillidse. 

"Wagtails and Pipits. 

-,p 222. CORTDALLA RICHARDI (J. 599). 

Arakan. 

[Tonghoo, Karen nee (W. £.); Pahpoon, Tavoy, Moulmein {D.).~\ 



96 



Birds of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



*223. C. KUETTLA (J. 600). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. 
[Rangoon, Tonghoo (W. J2.).] 

*224. PlPASTES MACULATTJS (J. 596). 

Anthus tnaculatus, Hodgs. ; Gould, B. As. pt. xvii. pi. 11 ; Fauna Japonica, Aves, pi. xxiii. 
Arakan, Tenasserim. Anthus agilis, Sykes, is true P. trivialis. 
[Karen nee hills, from 2000 to 5200 feet elevation {W. R.). Some 
eminent ornithologists decline to admit the specific distinction of A. agilis, 
A. maculatus, and the common European Tree Pipit. In the H. List, 
No. 3640, L. S. Miiller's title of plumatus is adopted for the European bird. 
Put as Linnaeus published the twelfth edition of the Systema ten years before 
L. S. Miiller bestowed the title cited, it is more in accordance with accepted 
practice to prefer the Linneean title.] 

*225. Anthus eosacetjs (J. 605). 
Arakan. , 

[226. A. CEEVIKUS. 
Motacilla cervina, Pallas, Zoogr. Eosso-As. i. p. 511. 

Examples obtained by Mr. Davison in Tenasserim are thus identified by 
Mr. Hume.] 

*227. Ptoytes vieidis (J. 593). 
Motacilla cinereicapilla, Savi, N. Giorn. d. Lett. p. 190. 
Arakan, Tenasserim. Pengal and Egyptian specimens quite similar. 
[Rangoon, Tonghoo, Karen nee at 3000 feet elevation (W. .#.).] 

[228. P. CALCAKATUS (J. 594). 

A single immature example obtained at Pahpoon by Mr. Davison is thus 
identified by Mr. Hume.] 

*229. LlMONIDEOMTJS INDICTIS (J. 595). 
Motacilla indica, Gm. ; Gould, B. As. pt. xiv. pi. 13. 
Arakan, Tenasserim, Malacca, China. 
[Thayet Myo (E.).] 

*230. Motacilla luzonensis (J. 590). 
Arakan, Tenasserim. 

[Tonghoo (W. R.). The black-backed, white-faced species, is referred 
to under the above title. Put strictly Sonnerat described the grey-backed 



■ 



1875.] 



Ilenicures, Pittas. 



97 



bird. "While Scopoli in his diagnosis, taken from Sonnerat, misquoted the 
description, and converted the word "grey " into black." The members of 
this section of the genus which inhabit Luzon have not hitherto been 
examined, and it therefore remains quite uncertain from what species Son- 
nerat described. It is not improbable that he did so from an Indian example 
of Jf. duhhunensis.^\ 

[231. M. dtjhu^ensis (J. 591). 

Tonghoo, Karen nee {W. JR.); Pahpoon (#.).] 

*232. M. boaettla (J. 592). 
Arakan, Tenasserim, Malacca. 

[Rangoon {W. R.). Whether or not specifically distinct from if. 
sulphurea of Europe, this bird must take the title of melanope, Pallas.] 

Fam. Henicuridse. 

Henicures. 

^233. Heotctibus guttatus (J. 584, partim). 
JEnicurus guttatus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 664; B. As. pt. xviii. pi. 11. 
East Himalaya, Khasias, Arakan. 

*234. H. IMMACTJLATUS (J. 585). 
Khasias, Arakan, Tenasserim. 
[Thayet Myo (0.).] 

*235. H. schistacetjs (J. 586). 

Arakan, where much less common than the preceding race ; Tenasserim, 
China. 

[Karen hills ( W. R.).~] 

[236. H. lesche:naulti. 
Turdus leschenaulti, Vieill. N. D. 20, p. 269. 

This Javan and Foochow bird is stated by Mr. Hume to have been 
obtained in the neighbourhood of Pahpoon and at Meeta Myo. If the iden- 
tification is correct, an interesting fact. It may perhaps be H. frontalis. ~] 

Fam. Bracliyuridse. 

Pittas. 

*237. Hydkobms kipaleistsis (J. 344). 
Hydrornis nipalensis, Hodgson ; Gould, B. As. pt. i. pi. 2. 
Arakan, Tenasserim. 






Birds of Burma. 



P*o. 1, 



[238. H. oatesi. 
H. oatesi, Hume, Str. Feath. i. p. 477, 

" Karen nee, from 2500 to 4000 feet. Iris (male not quite mature), 
brown; bill, pale brown; legs, light fleshy pink. Iris (in adult female), 
brown; bill, dark vinous brown; legs, light fleshy pink" {W. E.).~\ 

*239. Bkachyttrus cyanetjs. 
Pitta cyanea, nobis, J. A. S. B. xii. p. 1008, xvi. p. 153 ; Gray and Mitchell, Gen. Birds, 
pi. 55 ; Gould, B. As. pt. i. pi. 2a ; D. G. Elliot, Mon. Brachyuridge, pi. xiii. Myai-gnung. 

Arakan, Martaban ; Tenasserim (Heifer), 

[Karen hills, at 2000 feet. Iris, hair brown; bill, black; legs, fleshy 
{W.R.).-] 

*240. B. MOLTJCCENSIS. 

Turdus moluccensis, P. L. S. Miiller; Elliot, Ibis, 1870, p. 413; Mon. Brachyurida?, 
pi. iv. ; Pitta cyanoptera, Temminck, P.O. 218. 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam, Malacca, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, South 
China (Amoy). One specimen, received from Arakan, has the bill fully as 
large as in JB. megarhynchus (Schlegel), from the Isle of Banka.* 

[Eangoon ( W. R.) ; Thayet Myo (D.). There is no evidence in favour 
of the Javan habitat attributed to this Pitta by Temminck. The size of 
the bill varies considerably.] 

[241. B. MEGAKHYNCOTrS. 
Pitta megarhyncha, Schlegel, Vog. Nederl. Ind. Pitta, p. 32, no. 8, pi. 4. fig. 2. 
A well-marked species, hitherto known as being peculiar to the island 
of Banka, but stated by Mr. Hume (Str. Feath. ii. p. 475) to occur at Tavoy 
and Amherst in the months of May, June, and July.] 

*242. B. cijctjllatus (J. 346). 
Mpal, Khasias, Arakan, Malacca. 

[Eangoon ( W. R.) ; Thayet Myo (F.) ; Amherst (£.). Malaccan indi- 
viduals are identical with Himalayan and Burman examples.] 

Fam. Turdidse. 

Thrushes. 
Subfam. Turdin^e. 
*243. Myiophonus temmikckii (J. 343). 
Khasias, Arakan, Tenasserim. 

[Karen hills (W. R.). M. eugenei, Hume (Str. Feath, i. p. 475) is 
synonymous. M. temmincMi extends to Siam.] 

* Ibis, 1870, pi. xii. 



1875.] 



Thrushes. 



99 



[244. Ebachtptebyx cruealis (J. 338), 
Karen nee, 5000 feet {W. R.).~\ 

[245. P^OEPYGA SQUAMATA (J. 329). 

Karen nee, at 4000 feet {W. .#.).] 

*246» Peteocossyphits cyaisteus (J. 351). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. Generally, but not always, with more or less of 
ferrugineous colouring on the abdominal region, as in specimens from the 
East Himalaya. "In Burma," remarks Colonel M'Master, "this is the 
tamest and most confiding bird I have ever seen; it not only frequently 
enters the verandahs, but the inner rooms of houses, and is almost startling 
with its noiseless and uncanny familiarity. "Whilst at Tonghoo, I had, every 
season, one or two of them about my house, so fearless, that they might 
almost have been handled. I saw one, in my verandah at Rangoon, kill and 
swallow a large scorpion."* 

[Karen hills, from 2000 to 4000 feet {W. 22.)-] 

247. MoisTTICOLA SAXATILIS. 
Turdus saxatilis, L. ; PI. Enl. 562. 

" Upper Burma, on the banks of the river near Ava."f " Summers on 
the Pekin mountains" {Laird). 

*248. Oeocoetus cikcloehykchtjs (J. 353). 
Arakan. 

*249, Geocichla citeika (J. 355). 
Arakan. 

[Tonghoo, Karen nee (W. R.)\ Thayet Myo (O.); neighbourhood of Ye 
and Amherst (J9.).] 

*250. Tfkdus obscurtts. 

Turdus obscurus, Gmelin ; T. pattens, Pallas ; T. rufulus, Drapiez ; T. modestus, 
Eyton ; % Fauna Japonica, Aves, pi. xxvii. Myai-lu-hgnet. 

Khasias, Arakan, Andamans, Malacca, Java, Eorneo, China, and Korth- 
East Asia, according to season. 

[251. T. PALLIDUS. 
T. pallidus, Gm. S. N. i. p. 815. 

Karen nee, at 5000 feet in January {W. 2Z.). Has also been received 
by Major Godwin- Austen from K". Cachar.] 

* J. A. S. B. ri. pt. 2, p. 211. f vide Blanford, Ibis, 1870, p. 466. 

% Not T.j'avanicus, Horsfleld, which is the same as T.fumidus, S. Miiller. 



100 Birds of Burma. [No. 1, 

[252. T. SIBEEICUS. 

T. siberieus, Pallas, Reise, Russ, Reichs, iii. p. 694, no. 10. 

Karen nee, March 1, at 2500 feet. Iris (in female), rich brown; bill, 
black, slightly yellow at gape; leg, brownish yellow (W. i2.).] 

*'253. ZoOTHEEA MAEGUSTATA. 
Zoothera marginata, nobis, J. A. S. B. xvi. p. 141.* 

Khasias, Arakan. 

["Karen nee, from 1500 to 3000 feet. Iris ( £ , ¥ ), dark brown; maxilla, 
dark brown, almost black ; basal half of mandible, albescent ; legs, brown 
with a tinge of pink; orbital skin, purplish" (W. .#.)•] 

[254. Oeeocikcla mollissima (J. 370). 
Karen nee, at 5000 feet (W. B.).~] 

[255. 0. datjma (J. 371). 
Thayet Myo {Hume).'] 

Subfam. - — 

*256. Aothocotcla phayeei. 
Anthocincla phayrei, nobis, J. A. S. B. xxxi. p. 343. 
One specimen procured in Tonghoo. [Pahpoon (-2).)-] 

Subfam. Saxicolinje (Wheatears, Robins, etc.). 

*257. Cittocthstcla maceouea (J. 476). 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Malacca, Sumatra, Java. The Hainan race is 
smaller, according to Mr. Swinhoe. 

[Rangoon, Tonghoo, Karen nee, at 1500 feet \W. jB.).] 

*258. Copsychus saulaeis (J. 475). 

Gracula saularis, Lin.; Gould, B. As. pt. xv. pi. 5. Tha-beik-lway. 
Arakan, Pegu, Tenasserim, Siam, South China. 
[Eangoon, Tonghoo, Karen nee (W. jB.)-] 

259. Myiomela leucfea (J. 477). 

Procured by Col. Tickell upon Moule-it mountain, at an elevation 
of 5500 feet, being probably the same species as was obtained by Belanger in 
Pegu, in which case, the kindred Javanese race (Brachypteryx alhifrons, 

* Z. monticola, apud God win- Austen, J. A. S. B. xli. pt. ii. p. 142. 



1875.] Wheatears, Robins, etc. 101 

Boie)* is figured for it by M. Lesson, by the name Notodela diana, in the 
supposition of its being a more brightly coloured specimen of the same bird ; 
the two species being very nearly allied. M. leucura has also been obtained 
in the Khasias. » 

[Karen nee (W. R.). In his text Lesson also describes the Javan bird, 
and there is nothing to show that he referred to any other species. The 
genus Noiodela, of which Lanius diana, Lesson, is the type, must, therefore, 
merge in JBrachypteryxr\ 

*260. Ehyacoknis fuliotm>sa (J. 505). 
Arakan, Thayet Myo, China.f 

[261. EUTICIJLLA AUKOKEA (J. 500). 

Thayet Myo (F.).~\ 

*262. Ch^emaeehorkis leucocephalus (J. 506). 
Arakan. 

*263. # Cya^ecttla suecica (J. 514). 
Arakan. 

*264. Calliope camtschatke^sis (J. 512). 

Arakan. 

[Karen nee (W. R.) ; Thayet Myo (F.) ; Pahpoon (2).).] 

[265. Laeyiyoea cyake. 
Motacilla cyane, Pallas, Reise Russ. Reichs, iii. p. 697, no. 18. 
Pahpoon (2?.)-] 

266. Beachypteeyx (?). 

Prom Zwagaben mountain, described by Lieut. Beavan.J 

267. Oeeicola jeedom (J. 487). 

Rhodophila melanoleuca, Jerd. ; Gould, B. As. pt. xviii. pi. 11. 
"Obtained only once, in long elephant-grass, in the northern portion 
of the Bassein district" ( W. B. JBlanford). 

*268. Peati^cola eeeeea (J. 486). 
Arakan, Pegu, Tenasserim, South China. 

[Tonghoo, Tonghoo hills, Karen nee, at elevations of from 2500 to 4000 
feet(JF. RS).-\ 

* Bonap. Consp. Av. i. p. 257. 

f R. aurorea has been received both from the Khasias and the Malayan peninsula. 

% Ibis, 1870, p. 321. 









102 



Birds of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



*269. P. CAPEATA (J, 481). 
Lay-khya. 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Java, Celebes, Lombock, Moris, Philippines, Timor. 
[Tonghoo, Yey-tho, Karen nee, at 3500 feet {W. R.)\ Thayet Myo 

(0.).] 

*270. P. inbica (J. 483). 
P. indica, nobis; Gould, B. As. pt. xv. pi. 12. 

Arakan, Pegu, Tenasserim. 

[Eangoon, Tonghoo (W. JR.). It has been shown most conclusively by 
Mr. Dresser (B. Eur. Dec. 1873) that the Asiatic Stonechat cannot be speci- 
fically separated from the European. Mr. Blyth's title must therefore give 
way to that of P. ruhicola (Lin.).] 

271. P. leucttea (J. 484). 

P. leucura, nobis ; Gould, B. As t pt. xviii. pi. 12. 

" Banks of the Irawadi, near Thayet Myo, and throughout Tipper 
Burma. Common, and a constant resident" (W. JET. Blanford). % 
[Tonghoo (X.).] 

Fam. Museieapidse. 
Chat-flycatchers, f 

272. NlLTAYA GKAKDIS (J. 316). 
Chaitaris grandis, nobis ; Gould, B. As. pt. ii. pi. 4. 

Tenasserim mountains. 

*273. K stwdaea (J. 314). 

N. sundara, Hodgson ; Gould, B. As. pt. ii. pi. 5. 
Mountains of Arakan and Tenasserim. 
[Karen nee, at 4000 feet {W. _£.).] 

[274. N. MACGKIGOKIiE (315). 

Phmnicura macgrigorice, Burton; Gould, B. As. pt. ii. pi. 6; Niltava vivida, Hume, Str. 
Feath. ii. p. 475. 

[Karen nee, at 3000 feet \W. J2.); three days south of Pahchaun (D.). 

* Query Saxicola hemprichii (?), Ehrenberg, Symb. Phys., fol. act. [The characters 
which distinguish P. leucura from P. hemprichii will be found stated by Mr. Dresser, B. 
Eur., sub P. rubicola.~] 

f These Chat-flycatchers, with mottled nestling plumage, intergrade much with the 
preceding subfamily. 



1875.] Chat-flycatchers. 103 

Karen examples identical with Himalayan, etc. The Tenasserim bird has 
been separated under the title cited, from being "altogether brighter than 
the Himalayan species." JS"o other character (?) is mentioned.] 

*275. Cyoents eebeceloibes (J. 304). 

Arakan, Pegu, Tenasserim provinces. 

[Rangoon, Tonghoo hills, Karen nee, from 600 to 2000 feet (W. JR.). 
Many of my Burman examples, and also some from Ceylon, have the dark 
blue of the throat divided by the rufous colouring of the breast running up 
almost to the chin. Examples obtained in the neighbourhood of Pahpoon 
and Ye are identified by Mr. Hume as belonging to Gyornis ehgans (Tern.) ; an 
identification, judging by 1 his remarks (Str. Eeath. iii. p. 104, ml C. rubecu- 
loides), which requires confirmation. Cf. Walden, Ibis, 1872, p. 373.] 

[276. C. tickelli (J. 305, 306). 
C. tickelli, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1842, p. 491. 
Karen nee ( W. JR.\J] 

*277. SlPHTA STEOPECIATA (J. 319). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. 

[278. S. EEYTHACA (J. 322). 
S. erythaca, Blyth. & Jerdon, P. Z. S. 1861, p. 201. 
Karen hills, at 4000 feet (W. E.); pine forests north of Pahpoon (D.).~\ 

*279. Anthipes moniligee (J. 317). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. 

[Karen nee, at 5000 feet {W. R.).~] 

*280. Eeytheosteeka macelata (J. 326). 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Java. 

[Karen nee, at from 3000 to 5000 feet (W. J2.).] 

*281. E. leeceea (J. 323). 

Arakan, Pegu, Tenasserim, Hainan. Yery common about Akyab in the 
cold season ; obtained also at Bassein. 

[Rangoon, Karen hills {W. -5.)-] 

282. E. acoenaes ? (J. 325). 

Zwagaben.* 

[Karen nee, at 2500 feet {W. JR.). JE. sordida, Godwin-Austen, is the 
female of some species of Xanthopygia, perhaps of X. narcissina, but from 
which the type slightly differs.] 

* Beavan, Ibis, 1870, p. 320. 






104 Birds of Burma. [No. 1, 

*283. Eumyias MELANOPS (J. 301). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. 

[Karen nee, at from 700 to 5000 feet ; frequents rocky hills ( W. B.).~] 

*284. Butalis eatieosteis (J. 297). 

Arakan, Malacca, Sumatra, China. 

[Tonghoo (W. B.)\ Pabyouk and Meeta Myo (Z>.).] 

*285. E. sibieicus (J. 296). 
Muscicapa sibirica, Gnaelin ; of. "W". E. Brooks, J. A. S. B. xli. pt. 2, p. 75. 
Arakan. 

[Tonghoo hills, Karen hills at 700 feet, in December, a young bird 

{W.B.).~\ 

286. P>. FEEETOINETTS (J. 299). 

Thayet Myo, Hainan, South China. 



Fam. Sylviidse. 

Warblers. 

*287. Aeundinax aedon (J. 518). 
Arakan, Tenasserim, China. 
[Tonghoo (JF.B.).'] 

*288. AcEOCEPHALTTS BETTNNESCENS (J. 515). 

Arakan. 

[Hemprich & Ehrenberg's specific title, stentorea, has precedence.] 

*289. A. dumetoeum (J. 516). 
Arakan. 

[290. A. BISTBIGICEPS. 
A. bistrigieeps, Swinh., Ibis, 1860 (January 1st), p. 51. Salicaria maacldi, Schrenck, 
Amur Lande, i. pt. ii. p. 370, pi. 12, fig. 4-6 (June, 1860). 
Tavoy (2).)-] 

[291. NEOENIS ELAYOLIVACEA (J. 552). 

A specimen obtained by Mr. Oates in Upper Pegu is doubtfully thus 
identified by Mr. Hume (Str. Feath. iii. p. 139).] 



1875.] 



Warblers. 



105 



[292. 1ST. assimilis. 
Horornis assimilis^ Hodgs. Cat. B. of Nipaul, Brit. Mus. 2nd ed. p. 143; Blyth, Ibis, 
1867, pp. 21, 22; Godwin- Austen, J. A. S. B. 1874, p. 167. 

Karen nee (W. P.). In all respects identical with Shillong, Naga hills, 
Assam, and Darjeeling examples, excepting that the entire under-surface is 
more decidedly tinged with pale sordid yellow. N. assimilis can be readily 
distinguished from JST. flavolivacea, by its shorter wing and tail, weaker and 
much shorter bill, and by having the under shoulder-coverts pure sulphur- 
yellow.] 

*293. Phyllopkeuste puscatus (J. 555). 
Horornis fulviventris, Hodgson, P. Z. S. 1845, p. 31. 
Arakan, China. 
[Yattoun (0.) ; Ye-boo, Pahpoon (D.).] 

*294. P. BBUiomrs. 

P. brunneus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. siv. p. 591 ; P. maackii, Schrenck ; cf. Ibis, 1871, 
p. 109. 

Arakan. 

*295. P. magoteosteis (J. 556). 

P. borealis, Blasius, Naumania, 1858, p. 313 ; Ibis, 1871, p. 110. 
Arakan, China. 

[Mr. Hume (Str. Feath. ii. p. 478) includes P. borealis as a Tenasserim 
species, but omits P. magnirostris.^ 

*296. P. vieida^us (J. 560). 

P. schwartzi, Badde, Reisen, ii. p. 260, pi. ix. f. 1, a, b, c. 
Arakan. 
[Neighbourhood of Pahpoon (D.).~\ 

[297. P. LUGUBEis (J. 558). 
Pahpoon (Z>.).] 

[298. P. BEOOKSI. 
Phylloscopus broohsi, Hume, Str. Feath. ii. p. 505. 
Pahpoon (Z>.).] 

299. Reguloides teochiloides (J. 564). 
Amherst. 

[Karen hills, from 3000 to 4000 feet {W. JR.); Tonghoo (L.) ; neigh- 
bourhood of Pahpoon (Z>.).] 



m 



106 Birds of Burma. [-No. 1 

*300. E. supeeciliostts (J. 565). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. 

[Tonghoo, Karen hills, from 700 to 2500 feet ( W. i2.).] 

*301. E. peoeegitlus (J. 566). 

Arakan. 

[Pine forests north of Pahpoon (I?.).] 

302. E. vieidipennis (J. 567). 

Originally described from the Tenasserim hills, and since obtained 
plentifully at Darjeeling. 

[Karen hills, from 2000 to 4000 feet ( W. R.).~\ 

[303. E. eeocheoa (J. 568). 

Karen nee, Karen nee hills at 3000 feet ( W. 22.).] 

*304. Abboenis xanthoschistus (J. 572). 
Arakan. 

305. A. stjpeeciliaeis (J. 574). 
A. superciliaris, Tickell, J. A. S. B. xxviii. p. 414. 

Originally described from the Tenasserim hills, and since found to be 
common at Darjeeling. 

[Tonghoo hills, Karen nee ( W. i?.).] 

[306. A. chetsea, n.s. 

Above bright oil-green, two broad dark stripes springing from the fore- 
head, passing over the head and descending down the sides of the neck, 
where they are almost black. A central single stripe thus formed on the 
head, yellowish- green. A broad stripe, springing near the nostril and 
passing over the eye, and thus bounding the dark stripe, bright yellow. 
Ear-coverts mingled black and green. Cheeks, chin, throat, thigh-coverts, 
under tail-coverts, shoulder- edge, under shoulder-coverts, and axillaries, 
bright canary-yellow. Breast paler yellow, shading to pale silky grey on 
the abdominal region and flanks. Quills light brown, edged externally with 
bright greenish yellow. Major wing-coverts tipped and edged with yellow. 
Eectrices like the quills, all but the middle pair being edged on their interior 
margins with very pale yellow. Maxilla brown ; mandible pale straw-colour. 
Wing, 2; tail, 2-75; tarsus, 0'56; bill from forehead, 0-50. Karen hills, ¥ 
(W.R.). 

I am not sure whether this is not Reguloides fulviventer, God win- Austen, 
a species founded on a carbolized example, in which the green and yellow 
may have become changed to grey, or altogether discharged.] 



1875.] 



Babblers. 



107 



*307. CuLICIPETA BTJEKII (J. 569). 

Arakan. 

[The generic title, Cryptolopha, Swainson, is synonymous and has' pre- 
cedence. The Arakan form may possibly belong to the following species.] 

308. C. TEPHROCEPHALUS. 
C. tephrocephalus, J. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 213. 

Bhamo. 

["Iris, brown; bill, above brown, below yellowish ; legs, pale greenish 
brown, Karen hills, at 3500 feet" (W. £.); neighbourhood of Pahpoon (D.). 
Dimensions of the bill in the specimen from the Karen hills equal to those of 
Darjeeling examples of C. lwhii.~] 

Fam. Garrulacidse. 

Babblers. 

*309. Gaerttlax leucolophus (J. 407). 
Khasias, Arakan. 

*310. G. BELA1STGERI. 
G. belangeri, Lesson, Belanger's Voyage, Atlas, t. 4. 

Tenasserim provinces. 

The Himalayan G. leucolophus, the range of which extends to Arakan, 
the Tenasserim G. helangeri y the G. diardi, Lesson, = G. leucogaster, Walden, 
of Siam and Cochin-China, and the G. bicolor, Lesson, of Sumatra, are 
mutually representative races or con species, but which do not appear to grade 
into one another. Each in its own range abounds, and from its noisiness is 
the most prominently conspicuous bird in the forest. 

[Tonghoo ( W. R.) ; Thayet Myo (F.).~] 

311. G. STBEPITAlSrS. 

G. strepitans, Tickell, J. A. S. B. xxiv. p. 269. 

Tenasserim mountains, where common from 3000 to 5000 feet elevation 
{TichU). 

312. G. chi^e^sis. 

Laniiis chinensis, Scopoli, Del. Fl. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 85 ; Corvus auritus, Daudin. 
Tenasserim provinces, also South China. Obtained by myself in Upper 
Martaban, where observed associating with G. belangeri. 

[Tonghoo. Iris ( 4 ), lake colour; bill, black; legs, dusky brown ( W.R.).~] 









108 



Birds of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



313. G. PECTOEALIS (J. 412). 

Arakan. As remarked by Dr. Jerdon, " Specimens fpm the Himalayas 
have usually the ear-coverts silver-grey, whilst those from Arakan have 
them black and grey in every gradation." In some the pectoral band is 
wanting. 

[Thayet Myo, Karen nee {W. R.).~\ 

*314. G. moniligek (J. 413). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. Very similar to the last, and therefore liable to be 
confounded with it ; but it is smaller and conspicuously less robust. 
[Rangoon, Thayet Myo, Yey-tho, Karen hills {W. B.).~] 

*315. G. ALBIGTJLAEIS (J. 411). 

Tavoy, Siam {Gould). 

*316. Teochalopteeon melanostigma. 
Trochalopteron melanostigma, nobis, J. A. S. B. xxiv. p. 268. 

Tenasserim mountains, where obtained by Colonel Tickell, "up to the 
vast wall-like crags of Moule-it, 7500 feet." 

[Karen nee. Iris ( & ), deep chocolate ; bill, black ; legs, pale brown 

{W.R.).-] 

[317. ACTINUKA KAMSAYI. 
Actinura ramsayi, "Walden, Ann. M. N. H. (4), 15, p. 402 (June 1st, 1875). 
Karen nee, at 3500 feet. Iris ( £ ? ), light hair brown j bill, horny 
brown; legs, slaty brown {W. .#.)•] 

*318. SlBIA MELANOLEUCA. 

Sibia melanoleuca, nobis, J. A. S. B. xxviii. pp. 413, 451. 

Moule-it mountain, where obtained by Colonel Tickell. " Evidently 
exceedingly rare, or confined to elevated peaks. A pair only seen, of which 
the male was secured. Lively and restless, with a prattling whistle like 
that of S. capistrata." It is a conspecies with 8. capistrata of the Himalaya, 
and S. gracilis* of the Khasias. 

[319. S. picaoides (J. 430). 
Karen nee, at 5000 feet (W. H.)J] 

* J. A. S. B. xx. p. 521 ; xxvii. p. 422. 



1875.] Balllers. 109 

*320. Gampsoehystchtts eueulus (J. 384). 
Arakan, Tenasserim. 

[The Tenasserim race has been separated by Mr. Hume under the title 
of G. torquatus (P. A. S. £. 1874, p. 107).] 

321. Pteeytheifs eeytheopteeus"*(J. 609). 

Lanius erythropterus, Vigors ; Gould, B. As. pt. viii. pi. 8. 
Bhamo.* 

322. P. ^EALATUS. 

P. aralatus, Tickell, J. A. S. B. xxiv. p. 267. 
Tenasserim mountains, at 3500 to 4500 feet elevation. 
[Karen nee hills, from 4000 to 5000 feet. Iris ( ¥ ), deep lavender; bill, 
above black, below lavender; legs, dull white; claws, dark brown ( JF. JR.).'] 

*323. Alloteius melaistotis (J. 611). 
Pteruthius melanotis, Hodgson; Gould, B. As. pt. viii. pi. 11. 
Tonghoo. 

Fam. Liotrichidse. 

[324. Cutia otpale^sis (J. 612). 
Karen nee, at 6000 feet {W. R.). 

Sundeval (M. N. A v. Disp. Tentamen, p. 41) rejects the generic title 
Cutia, and adopts Hodgson's substituted title of HeterornisJ] 

[325. Lioptila AirarECTAtfs (J. 613). 

Karen nee {W. JR.). 

The ferruginous colouring of the lower back, ramp, and upper tail- 
coverts, in the example from Karen nee, is much darker than is observable 
in a numerous series from Darjeeling, Assam, and the Munipur hills.] 

*326. LlOTHEIX LTJTEA (J. 614). 
Sylvia lutea, Scopoli; Gould, B. As. pt. iii. pi. 17. 
Khasias, Arakan, South-west China. 

*327. L. aeoektaueis (J. 615). 
Mesia argentauris, Hodgson; Gould, B. As. pt. xiv. pi. 10. 
Khasias, Tenasserim mountains. 
[Tonghoo hills, Karen nee hills, from 1500 to 4000 feet (W. R.).~\ 

* vide J. Anderson, Exped. p. 259. 



. 



— i 







110 



Birds of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



[328. L.STEIGULA (J. 616). 

Tonghoo hills (W.R.).'] 

329. Siva ctanoueopteea (J. 617). 
8. cyanouroptera, Hodgson ; Gould, B. As. pt. xiv. pi. 12. 
Khasias, Tenasserim mountains. 
[Karen nee ( W. &.).'] 

[330. MlNLA CASTANEICEPS (J. 619). 

Karen nee, at 5200 feet ( W. jB.).] 

331. Staphidea striata (J. 625). 

Is this identical with I. castaneiceps, Moore, from the Khasias, and with 
8. torqueola, Swinhoe,* from China? Obtained by Col. Tickell on Moule-it 
mountain at an elevation of 3000 feet. 

[Distinct from S. torqueola, but doubtfully so from S. castaneiceps. ] 

*332. Tuhina GTJLARIS (J. 626). 
Arakan. 

[333. Peopaetjs dttbius. 
P. dubius, Hume, P. A. S. B. 1874, p. 107. 

Discovered by Mr. Davison in pine forests north of Pahpoon. Query 
= Ilinla rufogularis, Mandelli ?] 









Fam. 



(?)t 



*334. Herpoenis xantholetjca (J. 630). 

Khasias, Arakan, Tenasserim, Malacca. A very closely allied race from 
Hainan and Formosa is named S. tyrannula, by Mr. Swinhoe.j 
[Common in the Pegu hills (0.).] 



Fam. Zosteropidse. 

*335. ZOSTEEOPS PALPEBEOSUS (J. 631). 
Sylvia palpebrosa, Tern. ; P. Z. S. 1872, pi. xx. fig. 1. 
Arakan, Tenasserim, Nicobar Islands. 
[Karen hills {TV. R.).~] 

* Gould, B. As. pt. xxiii. pi. 14. 
t [Title omitted in MS.] 
X Ibis, 1870, p. 347, pi. 10. 



Ill 



!875.] Titmice. 

336. Z. SIAMENSIS. 
Z. siamensis, nobis, Ibis, 1867, p. 34. 
Tenasserim mountains. 
[Rangoon {W. JR.).'] 

[337. Z. amteni, n.s. 

Karen nee, at 2500 feet (W. i2.).] 

Above, dark uniform oil-green ; underneath, light yellowish-green ; 
almost pure yellow on chin, throat, and under tail-coverts. A shade of black 
below the eye. Quills dark brown, edged externally with the colour of the 
dorsal plumage. Shoulder-edge bright yellow. Axillaries and under 
shoulder-coverts white tinged with yellow. Eectrices hair-brown, narrowly 
edged externally with green. Wing, 2-6; tail, 1-50 ; tarsus, 0-50; bill, 
from forehead, 0-55.] 



Fam. 



(?> 



*338. MlTSCITEEA CTNEEEA.- 
Muscitrea cinerea, nobis ; J. A. S. B. svi. p. 122. 

Arakan. A remarkable form, of which the affinities are not obvious. 
The only specimen became destroyed by insects. 

[The type was obtained in the island of Eamree.] 

Fam. Paridse. 
Titmice. 

*339. Melanochloea elaviceistata (J. 650). 
Parus flavocristatus, Lafr. ; Gould, B. As. pt. xx. pi. 15. 

Arakan, Tenasserim mountains, Malacca, Sumatra. "One obtained at 
Kyodan, Salween river" (JBeavan). 

[Karen nee [W. JR.). The specific title, sultanea, Hodgs., has prece- 
dence.] 

[340. Paeus commixtus. 
P. commixtus, Swinhoe, Ibis, 1868, p. 63. 

Karen nee, at 3000 feet. Iris, hair brown ; bill, black ; legs, plumbeous 
{W. B.); pine forests north of Pahpoon (JD.). Barely separable from 
Japanese examples of P. minor. ~] 

* [Title omitted in MS.] 



mm JM 



112 Birds of Burma. [No. 1, 

[341. P. nipale^sis (J. 645). 
P. nipalensisy Hodgson, Ind. Rev. ii. p. 31 (1838). 

Thayet Myo (F.). The Indian species is now admitted to be distinct 
from the Javan, P. cinereus, and the title of P. ccesius, Tickell, has been 
adopted for it by Mr. Swinhoe. "Where or when Tickell published this title 
I have failed in discovering, yet Jerdon certainly employs it as a synonym 

(/. *.)■] 

^342. Machlolophus subyieidis. 
Tarns subviridis, Tickell, J. A. S. B. xxiv. p. 267; xxviii. p. 413. 

Tenasserim mountains, at 3500 feet elevation. 

[This must still continue a doubtful species. It was founded on a single 
example, shot at an elevation of 3500 feet in the Tenasserim hills by Col. 
Tickell. A second individual (much injured) from Tenasserim was identi- 
fied with it by Mr. Blyth (I. c.) four years later. Both appear to have been 
examples of M. spilonotus in immature plumage.] 

[343. M. spilokotus (J. 649). 
Karen nee, at 3500 feet {W. £.).] 

[344. iEoiTHALISCUS ERYTHEOCEPHALUS (J. 634). 
Farm erythrocephalus, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 23. 
Karen nee, 3000 feet {W. jR.)-] 

Fam. Sittidse. 

Nuthatches. 

345. SlTTA NEGLECT A. 
Sitta neglecta, Walden, Ann. M. N. H. (4), v. p. 218. 
Tonghoo. 
[Tonghoo, Yey-tho, Karen nee (W. B.).~] 






*346. Dendeophila peootalis (J. 253). 
Arakan, Tenasserim, Malay countries. 

[Tonghoo, Karen nee, Tsanko hills (W. R.). Identical with examples 
from Ceylon, India, Java, and Borneo.] 

[347. Ceethia discoloe (J. 245). 
Karen nee, 5000 to 6000 feet (TT. 22.).] 






1875.] 



Bahllers. 
Fan. Timeliidse. 



113 



*348. PoMATOEHIlSrilS ^HYPOLETICUS. 
Pomatorhinus hypoleucus, nobis, J. A. S. B. xiii. p. 319 ; xiv. p. 559 ; xxiv. p. 273 ; 
P. albicollis, Horsf., Gray and Mitchell, Gen. Birds, pi. 57. 

Nipal, Khasias, Arakan, Tenasserim. 

[349. P. OCHEACEICEPS. 

P. ochraceiceps, Walden, Ann. M. N. H. (4), 12, p. 487. 

Tonghoo, Karen nee hills, at 2500 feet. Iris ( £ ), pale straw-yellow ; 
bill, coral-red, with a marked tinge of orange; legs, greenish (W. j5.)0 

*350. P. schisticeps (J. 402). 
Khasias, Tippera, Arakan. 
[Upper Pegu (0.).] 

*351. P. LEUCOaASTEE (J. 403). 

Khasias, Arakan, Tenasserim. This and the preceding species resemble 
each other in colouring; but P. schisticeps is altogether larger, and has 
proportionally longer and coarser bill , and feet, with very much longer and 
straighter claws. 

[" Karen nee, at 3000 feet. Iris (&) straw-yellow; bill, orange- 
yellow, black at nostrils; legs, slaty (W. -#.)•] 

*352. P. PHAYEEI. 

P. phayrei, nobis, J. A. S. B. xvi. 452. 
Sikhim, Tavoy, Khasias, Arakan. 

*353. P. ALBIGTCXAEIS. 
P. albigulartSj nobis, J. A. S. B. xxiy. p. 274. 

This species and P. hypoleucus were procured by Colonel Tickell upon 
Moule-it mountain, at from 5000 to 6000 feet elevation. According to Mason, 
it is very common in the province of Tavoy. 

[354. P. MAEIiE. 

P. marice, Walden, Ann. M. N. H. (4), 15, p. 403 (June 1st, 1875). 
Tonghoo hills (W. R.).'] 

[355, P. EEYTHEOGEKYS (J. 405). 

Pine forests north of Pahpoon (Z>.).] 



if 



114 



Birds of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



*356. TlMELIA JEEDONI (J. 396). 

Timalia erdoni, Walden, Ann. M. N. H. (4), x. p. 61 ; T. bengalensis, Godwin 
Austen. 

"Upper Burma, where much, more abundant than in Bengal, and less 
shy, affecting hedge-rows and villages, instead of the unfrequented grass 
jungles and thickets, in which alone it is seen in Bengal" (Jerdon). 

Mr. W. T. Blanford informs me that he has Burmese specimens of 
intermediate size to T. jerdoni and T. pileata, Horsfield, rendering the pro- 
priety of their separation doubtful. 

[Kangoon, Tonghoo {W. R.) ; Pahpoon, Yeboo (I).). The continental 
form must take the title of T. bengalensis, Godwin Austen (J. A. S. B. 1872, 
p. 143), which has priority over mine. As the specific validity of the 
species in no way depends on its dimensions, the information quoted has no 
bearing on the point. And this remark equally applies to Mr. Hume's 
observations (Str. Peath. iii. p. 118). The large series, from various parts, 
I have had opportunities of comparing with the Javan species, fully support 
Dr. Jerdon's, Major Godwin Austen's, and my own conclusions.] 

*357. MlXOENIS EEBICAPILEA (J. 395). 
Motacilla rubicapilla, Tickell; Ibis, 1872, p. 376. 
Arakan, Tenasserim. 
[Karen nee [W. 22.) ; both sides of the Pegu hills (0.).] 

*358. Pelloenettm etjficeps (J. 399). 
Arakan, Tenasserim. 

359. P. TICEELLI. 

P. tickelli, nobis, J. A. S. B. xxviii. p. 414; P. suhochraeeum, Swinhoe, Ann. M. N. 
H. (4), 7, p. 257. 

Tenasserim mountains. 

[Rangoon, Tonghoo, Thayet Myo, Karen hills [W. 22.).] 

360. P. MisroE. 

P. minor, A. 0. Hume, Str. Feath. ii. p. 298. 
Thayet-myo. 
[A synonym of P. ticTcelli.'] 

*361. TUEDINFS* CEISPIFEONS. 
Turdinus orispifrons, nobis, J. A. S. B. xxiv. p. 269. 
Tenasserim mountains. 

* Generically identical witb Cacopitta, Bonap. (1850). 



1875] Babblers. 115 

362. T. GTTTTATUS. 

T. guttatus, Tickell, J. A. S. B. xxviii. pp. 414, 450. 
Tenasserim mountains. 

363. T. BEEVICATJDATITS. 

T. brevicaudatus, nobis, J. A. S. B. xxiv. p. 272; Gould, B. As. pt. xxiv. pi. 9; T. 
striatus, Walden. 

Khasias, Tenasserim mountains. These three species were discovered 
by Col. Tickell. 

[364. Deymocataphus ettlvus. 
Brymocataphus fulvus, Walden, Ann. M. N. H. (4), 15, p. 401 (June 1st, 1875). 
Karen nee, at 2500 feet ( W. JR.).'] 

365. Teichostoma abbotti (J. 387). 

Arakan (Eamri), Moulmein. This bird is barely separable from the 
(so-termed) Brachypteryx sepiaria, Horsfield, which is Myiothera grisea of the 
Ley den Museum, and Malacopteron olivaeeum^ Strickland. Its range extends 
to Eastern Bengal, and to the Nipalese tarai. 

[Eangoon, Tonghoo, foot of Karen hills (W. R.). Identical with 
examples from the Garo hills, from hills near Mymensing, from Dunapur, 
and from Dunsifi valley.] 

[366. T. MisroE. 

T. minor, Hume, Str. Feath. ii. p. 535. 

Lemyne, Meeta Myo, To (D.). Judging by the description, a species of 
doubtful validity. But, if distinct from the Indian species, probably true 
T. allotti.~] 

[367. T. EUBIGINOSA. 

T. rubiginosa, Walden, Ann. M. N. H. (4), 15, p. 402 (June 1st, 1875). 
Karen nee {W. J?.)-] 

*368. Alcippe isriPALEisrsis (J. 388). 

A. phayrei, nobis, J. A. S. B. xiv. p. 601, wanting the dark sincipital stripes, is 
probably the young. 

Arakan, Tenasserim. " Common, but local, in hilly jungles up to 
4000 feet" {Tickell). 

[369. A. magkikosteis, n.s. 

Karen nee hills, at 3000 feet (W. JR.). 

All the individuals obtained in the locality named differ from Darjeeling, 



m 



pHP^ 



116 Birds of Burma. [No. 1, 

Garo hills, and ITaga hills examples, by wanting the grey-coloured cheeks and 
ear-coverts of A. nipalensis, and by having the tail brown and not rufous. 
All the dimensions are greater. "Wing, 2*75 ; tail, 3 ; tarsus, # 87.] 

*370. Sieachyehis sttokiceps (J. 391). 

Arakan, Tenasserim mountains. "In hilly forests, 3000 feet" (TickelT). 
Timalia larvata, S. Muller,* from Sumatra, is nearly akin and should be 
compared with it. 

[Pegu hills (0.).] 

[371. S. eueiceps (393). 

Karen nee {W. JR.); neighbourhood of Pahpoon (D.). 
A single Karen nee example, in very indifferent order, appears to belong 
to this species.] 

[372. S. btjfifbojsts. 
S. rujifrons, Hume, Str. Feath. i. p. 479. 
Pegu hills (0.).] 

*373. S. chkysea (J. 394). 
8. pr&cognitus, Swinhoe. 

Arakan, South China. 

\_S. chrysea is also stated by Dr. Jerdon to occur in Arakan, and in Mr. 
Blyth's manuscript the number of that species in Jerdon's Birds of India 
(394) is added to the title. But it is evident that S. precognita, Swinhoe, 
cannot be a synonym, for it is the name of a species nearly allied to, although 
distinct from, S. rujiceps. This last species was probably omitted by Mr. 
Blyth through accident, while to it he doubtlessly intended to add S. precog- 
nita, Swinhoe, as a synonym, and not to S. chrysea.~\ 

[374. S. assmilis, n.s. 

Above cinereous olive-green. Feathers of the head yellow, with brown 
central streaks. Cheek and ear-coverts, pale brown tinged with yellow. 
Entire under surface, dilute yellow. Quills, brown edged externally with 
pale yellow. Eectrices, cinereous brown tinged with olive -green. "Wing, 
1-92; bill, from forehead, 0'56; tail, 1*92; tarsus, 0*58. 

" Karen nee (i, ? ) at 2800 feet of elevation. Iris (£), lake; bill, 
lavender, pink at base of mandible; legs, brownish yellow; feet, greenish. 
Iris ( ¥ ), brown ; bill, dark plumbeous, pinkish at base of mandible ; legs, 
light greenish-brown" {W. i2.).] 

* Bonap. Consp. Av. i. p. 217. 



1875.] 



Babblers. 



117 



*375. Pyctoehis sinensis (J. 385). 

" Very common in Upper Burma" {Jerdon). I noticed it abounding in 
the vicinity of Akyab. 

[Karen nee ( W. R.) ; Thayet Myo (0.).] 

376. P. ALTIROSTRIS. 
Chrysomma altirostre, Jerdon, Ibis, 1862, p. 22. 

Common at Thayet Myo. 

[This species has not been recognized since Dr. Jerdon described it 
thirteen years since. By some it is regarded as nothing but P. sinensis, a 
species thoroughly well known to Dr. Jerdon. But, moreover, he mentions 
(/. c.) that "it will probably be considered worthy of separation as a sub- 
genus," and that it " makes an approach to the Paradoxomis group." In 
conversation Dr. Jerdon has asserted that it was a " good species." ] 

*377. Paradoxornis ruficeps (J. 375). 

Paradoxomis ruficeps, nobis; Gray and Mitchell, Gen. Birds, pi. 94, fig. 1; Gould, 
B. As. pt. vi. pi. 12. 

Received from Arakan, and the only species as yet received from any 
part of British Burma, though others may be expected to inhabit the same 
localities.* 

[Karen nee, at 2500 feet ( W. R.).'] 

[378. P. gularis (J. 374). 
P. gularis, Horsf. ; Gray and Mitchell, Genera of Birds, ii. pi. 94, fig. 2. 
Karen nee, at 5600 feet ( W. £.)•] 

Fam. Megaluridse. 

*379. Crateropus gularis. 
Chatarhea gularis, nobis, J. A. S. B. xxiv. p. 478. 

"The familiar garden-babbler of Thayet Myo, and still more abundant 
and familiar higher up the Irawadi, as Mr. "W. J. Blanford informs me" 

{Jerdon). 

[Thayet Myo (W. R.).~] 



* Suthora brunnea, J. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 211. Momien, Yunan. 4500 feet. 



118 



Birds of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



380. C. EAELEX (J. 439). 

"Not rare at Thayet Myo, but confined entirely to the long grass and 
reeds on the islands and churrs of the Irawadi" (Jerdon). 

*381. C. caudatus (J. 438). 

Arakan, Thayet Myo. As this and the two preceding species are 
absolutely congeneric with sundry African species of undoubted Crater opus,* 
I can only refer them to that genus. It is remarkable that the true Mala- 
cocerci, so characteristic of India and Ceylon, have no typical representative 
in the countries eastward of the Eay of Bengal. 

*382. MEaALUEUS paltjsteis (J. 440). 

The range of this species extends from India, Assam, and Burma to Java 
and the Philippines. I do not remember to have seen it, however, in col- 
lections from the Malayan peninsula. 

*t383. Deymoeca Lo^aiCAUDATA (J. 544). 
Arakan. 

[384. Deymoeca blanfobdi, n.s. 

Above brown (darkest on the head), with an olive-green tinge, which is 
in some very distinct on the rump. A dull, broad, albescent stripe springing 
from the base of the bill, and extending back over and beyond the eye. 
Ear-coverts mingled albescent and pale brown. Cheeks, wing lining, and 
all the lower surface of body yellowish white, faintly rufescent on flanks and 
thigh-coverts. Quills, brown externally, narrowly edged with olive-green. 
In some with an indistinct rufous shade. Bectrices, pale brown above; 
albescent underneath. All but middle pair with a bold subterminal brown 
transverse isolated mark. Middle pair with a faint indication of a dark 
terminal spot. (4) Wing, 2; tail, 2-50; tarsus, 0*82; bill, from fore- 
head, 0-58. 

"Iris (?), dark buff; maxilla, horny brown, mandible, pale; eyelids, 
yellowish brown ; legs, dull white. Iris ( & ), yellowish brown; bill, fleshy 
brown ; eyelids, yellowish brown ; Tonghoo " (W. i2.).] 

*385. Peikla flaviventeis (J. 532). 
Arakan, Tenasserim, Malacca. 

[Rangoon ( W. JZ.). The type of Delessert's species came from Bhootan. 
Assam (Tezpur) examples obtained by Major Godwin Austen agree with 

*Cf. Ibis, 1867, p. 6. 



1875.] 



Wren Warblers. 



119 



Eelessert's diagnosis, the ear-coverts and the lores being grey; the super- 
ciliary region being dark coloured like the head. Sylhet individuals do not 
differ, but specimens from the Munipur hills, while otherwise undistinguish- 
able, possess pure white lores continued into a bold pure white supercilium. 
Out of a large series obtained by Lieutenant W. Eamsay at Eangoon, one 
only has the lores and superciliary ridges pure white. All the other speci- 
mens being like the Assam and Sylhet birds. In my series of the Javan 
representative form, P. familiaris, one example only has white lores and 
supercilium. The presence of a white supercilium does not appear to indicate 
the sex, for all the Munipur birds whose sex had been determined are marked 
t , while the single Eangoon example with a white supercilium is noted a ? , 
and the others, some & and some ¥ .] 

*386. P. KUPESCENS. 
P. rufescens, nobis, J. A. S. B. xvi. p. 456 ; P. beavani, Walden. 
Arakan, Pegu. 

\_P. beavani is a distinct species. P. rufescens is a very rufous form of 
P. gracilis.'] 

[387. P. gracilis (J. 536). 

Eangoon (W. P.) ; Pegu (0.) ; Kollidoo (Z>.).] 

[388. P. hodgsoni (J. 538). 

Eangoon, Karen nee (W. P.); Thayet Myo (0.).] 

[389. P. BEAVANI. 
P. beavani, Walden, P. Z. S. 1866, p. 651. 

Yey-tho, Karen hills, at 2000 feet {W, P.) ; Thayet Myo (0.) ; Tenas- 
serim (2).).] ' 

*390. ClSTICOLA SCH^NICOEA (J. 539). 

Arakan, Pegu, Hainan, South China, Formosa. 

[391. HOEEITES PALLIDIPES. 
Phylloscopus pallidipes, Blanford, J. A. S. B. 1872, p. 162, pi. vii. 
Pahpoon (2?.).] 

[392. H. sericea, n.s. 

Above uniform, rather dark, brown washed with an olive tint, having in 
some lights a ruddy tone. TJnder-surface of body and wing-lining silky 
white, the flanks, thigh- coverts, and under tail-coverts sullied with pale 



n 



120 Birds of Burma. [No* 1, 

brown. Cheeks and ear-coverts mixed pale brown and white. Space before 
the eye and superciliary ridges, sordid white. Quills and rectrices brown, 
edged with the colour of the upper plumage. Wing, 2 ; tail, 1-75 ; tarsus, 
0-68 ; bill, from forehead, 0-60. 

" Iris ( ¥ ), dull brown ; bill, yellow ; legs, fleshy white. Karen hills " 
(JF1J2.).] 

[393. SUYA CRINTGERA (J. 547). 

ThayetMyo (0.).] 

[394. S. ERYTHROPLEURA, n.S. 

Male, above rufous brown, the base of the feathers being ash. On the 
lower back and upper tail-coverts the rufous hue predominates. Space before 
the eye, dark brown. A white line, springing from near the nostril, passes 
back over and behind the eye. Ear-coverts, cheeks, chin, throat, breast, 
abdomen, and wing-lining, creamy white, strongly suffused with rufo-fulvous. 
Flanks, thigh-coverts, and under tail-coverts bright ferruginous. Quills, 
brown edged with ferruginous. Eectrices like the back. 

(i) Wing, 1-87; tail, 4-87; tarsus, 0-88; bill, from forehead, 0-65. 
Tonghoo (W. R.).~\ 

*395. Orthotomus longicauda (J. 530). 

Of general occurrence, extending eastward to South China and Formosa, 
and southward to Singapore. 

[Tonghoo, Karen nee {W. £.); Thayet Myo (0.); Tenasserim (B.). 
The Ceylon and Indian Tailor-bird must stand 0. sutorius (G. It. Forster), 
Zool. Ind. p. 17 (1781), even if it be considered identical with the South 
China species, Muscicapa longicauda, Gm.= 0. phyllorrhaphaus, Swinh., 
which it appears to be.] 

*396. 0. EDELA. 

0. edela, Tern., P.C. 599, fig. 2. 

Tavoy, Siam (Gould). According to Mason, "Tailor-birds are very 
common at Tavoy, though rare at Moulmein." He is not likely to have 
discriminated the particular species. 

[I am not certain which species is intended by Mr. Blyth. The authority 
of Mr. Gould is quoted for the occurrence of this Javan race of the common 
Indian Tailor-bird at Tavoy and in Siam. The Javanese 0. edela and the 
Indian 0. sutorius are barely separable, the Javan being chiefly distinguished 
by having the lores and superciliary stripe pale ferruginous, and not greyish- 



1875.] 



Shrikes. 



121 



white. All the Burman examples, and those from Siam, I have been able to 
examine, belong to 0. sutorius. Formerly Mr. Blyth mistook the more 
recently described 0. flavi-viridis, Moore, for 0. edela, and Moore's species 
does occur in Burma.] 

[397. 0. ELAVI-VIEIDIS. 
0. flavi-viridis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 

Bangoon ( W. R.\ 

The description of 0. nitidus, Hume, agrees well with this species, 
before the grey throat and black breast-feathers have been assumed. Mr. 
Hume's specimens were obtained at Pahpoon, Kyouknyat, and Thayet- 
chaun.] 

[398. 0. coeonatits (J. 531). 

Tsan koo hills, at 3000 feet (W. R.),'] 

[399. LoCTJSTELLA LANCEOLATA. 

Sylvia lanceolata, Tern., Man. d'Orn. iv. p. 614; Locustetta subsignata, Hume; cf. 
Dresser, B. Eur. parts 35 and 36. 

Teboo (D.).] 

Fam. Laniidse. 

Shrikes. 



*400. Lanttjs tepheonottts (J. 258). 

Arakan. 

[Kyouknyat (Z>.).] 

*401. L. nigeiceps (J. 259). 

X. nigriceps, Frankl. ; Gray and Mitchell, Gen. Birds, pi. 71. 
Arakan, Siam. 
[Tonghoo (W. R.); neighbourhood of Pahpoon (2?.).] 

*402. L. ceistattjs (J. 261).* 

Arakan. 

[Rangoon, Karen nee {W. R.); Thayet Myo ( 0.) ; Tenasserim (2>.).] 

* vide Lord Walden, " On the Eufous-tailed Shrikes," Ibis, 1867, p. 212. Mason 
includes X. tigrinus, Drapiez, but I know not on what authority. 



a 



122 Birds of Burma. [JSf . 1, 

403. L. COLLUEIOLDES. 

Z. collurioides, Lesson, Voyage Belanger, p. 250 ; L. hypoleucus, nobis, J. A. S. B. xvii. 
p. 249. 

Pegu, Martaban, Tenasserim provinces, Siam. " Thayet Myo and Ava 
in cold season only" ( W. T. Blanford). 

[Eangoon, Tonghoo, Thayet Myo, Karen nee (W. i2.).] 

*404. Tepheodoekts pelyica (J. 263). 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Hainan. 

[Karen hills {W. R.) ; Thayet Myo (0.).] 

*405. T. postticeeia^a (J. 265). 

Pegu. 

[Tonghoo ( JT. JR.); Thayet Myo (0.).] 

*406. Hyloteepe Philomela (J. 266). 
. Arakan, Pinang, Java, Borneo, Andaman Islands. 
[Must stand Hyloterpe grisola (Blyth). Hylocharis occipitalis, Hume, 
Str. Peath. ii. p. 202, is synonymous.] 

407. Hemipus obscueus. 

Muscicapa obscura 9 Horsfield ; M. hirundinacea, Eeinwardt. 
Mergui.* 

[408. H. piCATirs (J. 267). 
Muscicapa picata, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 85. 

Tonghoo, Karen nee, at 1500 feet, Tsan koo hills (W. JR.); Thayet 
Myo (0.); Pahpoon (D.). All the examples sent to me by both Major 
Lloyd and Lieutenant Wardlaw Eamsay, from the Tonghoo province, belong 
to the South Indian and Ceylon species. But Mr. Blyth seems to be correct 
in his opinion that the Assam bird, M. capitalis, is a distinct species. All 
the examples of the male I have seen from Darjeeling, Assam, and the Naga 
hills, have the back brown, and the head alone black (cf. Blyth, Ibis, 1866, 
p. 368; Jerdon, op. cit. 1872, p. 116; and compare Hume, Str. Eeath. 1873, 
p. 435 ; 1875, p. 93). Young males in both species wear the female dress. 
The young S. picatus in transition plumage, before assuming the full black 
dorsal garb, shows brown on the back. H. capitalist & , when adult, retains 
the brown colouring on the back ] 

* Mason also gives M. picatus, meaning doubtless M. capitalis (cf. Ibis, 1866, p. 368). 



1875.] 



Cuelcoo shrikes. 
Fam. Graucalidse. 



123 



# 409. Geaucaltjs macei (J. 270). 
Arakan, Tenasserim. 

[Rangoon, Tonghoo hills, Karen nee from 2500 feet to 4000 feet 
(JF.R); Thayet Myo (.F.).] 

^410. YOLYOCIYOEA AVEKSIS. 

Volvocivora avensis, nobis, Catal. p. 327 ; C. melanoptera, nobis, J. A. S. B. xv. p. 307. 
Common in Arakan. 

[Rangoon, Tonghoo, Thayet Myo, Karen nee (W. JR.); Pabyouk, near 
Amherst (D.).] 

*411. V. sykesi (J. 268). 
Upper Pegu. 

[412. Y. melanoschistus (J. 269). 
V. melaschistos, Hodgson, Ind. Rev. i. p. 328 (1836). 

Examples obtained at Pahpoon, Pabyouk, Ye-boo, and Ye, by Mr. Davi- 
son, are thus identified, with doubt, by Mr. Hume (Str. Peath. ii. p. 474).] 

*413. Peeiceocottjs speciosus (J. 271). 

Turdus speciosus, Lath. ; Gould, B. As. pt. ix. ; P. rutilus, Gould ; P. fraterculus, 
Swinhoe; P. andamanensis, Tytler. Egnet-rnen-tha £ , hgnet-men-thamie ? (" Prince and 
Princess Bird/' Mason). 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Andaman Islands, Khasias, Siam; and Hainan 
(Swinhoe). Mr. Y. Ball remarks of this species that "the amount of red on 
the central tail-feathers varies much in specimens from various parts of India 
and Burma." Pour out of five males from the Andamans have the central 
tail-feathers wholly black. The specimens in Lord Walden's collection from 
India have black middle tail-feathers, while in those from Burma the outer 
web is red. Others sent by Mr. Swinhoe as P. fraterculus do not appear to 
be separable. 

[Tonghoo, Karen nee [W. R.) ; Thayet Myo (O.). Out of a numerous 
series from Tonghoo and its vicinity only one male has the middle pair of 
rectrices completely black ; while in all the females, without exception, they 
are entirely black. Some Assam examples have the middle pair black.] 

*414. P. beevieosteis (J. 273). 
Phanicomis brevirostris, Vigors ; Gould's Century, pi. 8. 
Arakan. 
[Karen nee, at 3000 feet ( W. R.)) pine forests north of Pahpoon (Z>.).] 



124 Birds of Burma. [No. I, 

*415. P. EOSETJ8 (J. 275). 

Muscicapa rosea, Vieillot; Gould, B. As. pt. ix. pi. — 
Arakan. 
[Tonghoo (W. B.) ; Pahpoon (D.).] 

*416. P. pekegeikus (J. 276). 
Parus peregrinusj Linn.; Gould, B. As. pt. ix. pi. — 

Arakan, Tenasserim. Common; some of the males very brightly- 
coloured, and appearing to grade into P. flagrans, Boie, of the Malayan 
peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. Mr. V. Ball remarks that " Andaman 
specimens correspond to the darker-plumaged variety of this bird from 
Madras and Ceylon, from one of which Gould's figure is taken." 

[Tonghoo (Z.); Karen nee {W. B.); Thayet Myo (F.).'] P. flagrant, 
Boie, in no way resembles P. peregrinus, otherwise than by its small dimen- 
sions. It is a diminutive form of P. ardens, Boie, which, in its turn, is a 
small form of P. speciosus. The female of P. flagrans is yellow and grey, as 
in the other two species. P. peregrinus is a distinct type, and has no known 
representative in any part of the Malayan sub -region.] 

*417. P. ALBIFEOISTS. 
P. albifrons, Jerdon, Ibis, 1863, p. 20. 

Thayet-myo. An interesting " double" of the Indian P. erythropygius. 
[Tonghoo (Z.); Thayet Myo (0.).] 



Fam. PipridoB. 

Manakins. 

*418. Calyptomena vieidis. 

Calyptomena viridis, Raffles ; Horsfield, Zool. Ees. in Java, pi. ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. 
xxxix. pt. 2, p. 284. 

Tenasserim mountains.* 

" These birds resort to dense thickets when alarmed, but will sally out 
to feed on fruits (wild figs), and they mingle with Barbets and other birds 
while so doing. The note is low and sweet — a low whistle. Like the Fury- 
lainii, they are tame and stupid " {Tickett). Heifer also procured this species 
in the Tenasserim provinces. 

* vide J. A. S. B. xiii. p. 243 ; Tickell, op. cit. xxiv. p. 279. 



1875.] Broadlills. ^25 

Fam. Eurylaemidae. 

Broadbills. 

*419. Seeilophtts ettbeopyoitjs (J. 139). 
Maya rubropygia, Hodgs. ; Gould, B. As. pt. v. pi. — 
Arakan, Khasias, S. E. Himalaya. 

*420. S. LUNATUS. 
S. lunatus, Gould; B. As. pt. v. pi. — 

Tenasserim provinces. " These birds are much better flyers than the 
Eurylaimi. I found them once in a flock, like Titmice, but very high up" 
(TicMl). Dr. Heifer states, in his MS. notes quoted by Mr. P. Moore, "that 
he observed this bird in societies of thirty or forty, upon the loftiest trees in 
the forests in the Tenasserim provinces ; and that they are so very fearless 
that the whole flock can be shot down one after the other." He only observed 
them on one occasion. 

["Iris, iridescent green and brown; bill, turquoise blue, paler towards 
the tip ; region of nostrils, gape, and under surface of basal half of mandible, 
orange; legs, oran ge- green ; claws, bluish- white " (TT. R.). Karen hills, 30 
miles north of Tonghoo (Z.); Karen nee, at 3000 and 4000 feet (W. R.); 
Pahpoon, Amherst, Om-ben-gwen (-D.)O 

421. COEYDOIST SUMATEAKUS. 
Coracias suniatranus, Raffles ; Gould, B. As. pt. v. pi. — - 

Tenasserim provinces, Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo. "A singular and 
rare bird ; crepuscular (very likely diurnal as well), and so stupid and tame 
as to allow itself to be pelted without moving" (Tickell). 

[Karen hills (JT. R.).~\ 

*422. EUEYL^EMUS JAVAJSTICUS. 
Eur y Icemus jav aniens, Horsf. ; Gould, B. As. pt. v. pi. - — 

Tenasserim provinces, Malayan peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Borneo. 
" JSTot common, at least it is not often seen, being very quiet and secluded, 
though excessively tame, and not crepuscular like Cory don" (Tickell). 
[Tonghoo hills (Z.).] 

423. E. OCHEOMELAS. 

E. ochromalus, Baffles; Gould, B. As. pt. v. pi. — 
Tenasserim provinces, Malayan peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo. 



126 



Birds of Burma. 



[No. 1, 



424. CYMBOEHYlsrCHUS MACEOEHY^CHUS. 
Todm meter or hynchus, Gm. ; Gould, B. As. pt. v. pi. — 

Bassein, Tenasserim provinces, Siam, Malayan peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo. 

[Count Salvadori has recently (Atti E. Ac. Sc. Torino, ix. p. 421) re- 
stricted Latham's Great-billed Tody to Sumatra and Borneo, also to Java, but 
with a doubt, and has separated the Malayan Broadbill under a new title, 
C. malaccensis {t. c. p. 425). True C. macrorhynchus, according to the 
Count, has a black and unspotted tail ; whereas the Malayan bird, on the 
three outer pairs of rectrices, has, towards the apex, and on the inner webs, 
a white oblique spot. In the Malaccan bird this is so, and Sumatran examples 
will more probably be found to agree with the Malaccan rather than with the 
Bornean. But to which race Latham's type, contained in the Leverian 
Museum, belonged, Count Salvadori does not make quite clear. Latham's 
type, however, is, as the Count mentions, and as Herr von Pelzeln has told 
us (Ibis, 1874, p. 19), extant in the Yienna Museum. "We may therefore 
assume that the Count, with his accustomed accuracy, has satisfied himself 
on the point.] 

*425. C. AEEIMS. 

C. affinis, nobis, J. A. S. B. xv. p. 312 ; Gould, B. As. pt. 5, pi. — 
Arakan (Kamri), Tavoy (Gould), Siam, and Cambodja (G. R. Gray). 

*426. PsAEISOMUS DALHOUSm (J. 138). 
Eurylaimus dalhousice, Jameson; Gould, B. As. pt. v, pi. — 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Sumatra. " On the table-land of Cherra Punji,' > 
remarks Mr. Frith, " flocks of this bird often ascend, while, as they fly about 
from garden to garden, the native boys hunt them by intercepting and turn- 
ing their flight away from the gardens, when they are soon fatigued and 
easily caught with the hand" (J. A. S. B. 1855, p. 279, note). 

[Karen hills, at 3000 feet (W. R.). I can find no record of a com- 
parison having been made between this species and Sumatran U. psittacinus, 
S. Mull.] 



Fam. Hirundinidae. 

Swallows. 
*427. HiEinsTDo ettstica (J. 82). 

Mostly of the smaller eastern race (IT. gutturalis, Scopoli), but I think 
not exclusively so. Arakan, Tenasserim. 
[Tonghoo (W. JR.); Thayet Myo (0.).] 



1875.] Swallows. 127 

[428. H. TYTLEEI. 

H. tytleri, Jerdon, B. Ind. iii. p. 870. 
Thayet Myo (0.); Tavoy (Z>.).] 

[429. H. HOEEEOEUM. 
IT. horreorum, Barton, Fragm. N". H. 1799, p. 17. 
Tonghoo (TT. JR.). Undistinguishable from Californian examples.] 

[430. H. eilifeea (J. 84). 
Pahpoon (2).)-] 

*431. Ceceopis eeytheopygia (J. 85, partim). 

Hirundo erythropygia, Sykes; Gould, B. As. pt. xx. pi. 10; Ibis, 1866, p. 337. 
Common in parts of the jungles, at least during the northern winter. 

[432. C. STEIOLATA. 
Hirundo striolata, Tern., Faun. Japonica, p. 33. 

Karen nee, at 2600 feet, in March,- Karen hills, at 3000 feet, in 
January [W. JR.). Identical with Flores, Formosan, and Chinese examples. 
Quite distinct from C. erythropygia, which is barely separable from G. rufuhJ] 

433. Chelidon uebica (J. 92). 

Col. Tickell writes: " There are great numbers here" (at Moulmein) 
"in the season ; and I have also seen large flocks of them in India, but they 
appear from time to time, not constantly, as does 22. rustica."* 

*434. Cotyle sinensis (J. 89). 

Common along the rivers, where it holds the place of C. riparia in Europe. 

[Tonghoo {W. JR.); Pahpoon (JD.). C. obscurior, Hume, Str. Feath. 
iii. p. 43, is founded on a single indifferent specimen of a species of Cotyle 
obtained at Thayet Myo by Mr. Oates.] 

Fam. Artamidse. 

Clusterers. 

*435. Aetamus fuscus (J. 287). 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam, Hainan. In the Andamans and Nicobars, 
A. leucorhynchus (Lin.) replaces it. 

[Tonghoo, Thayet Myo, Karen hills (W. 22.).] 

* J. A. S. B. xxiv. p. 809. 



128 Birds of Burma. [No. 1, 

Earn. Dicruridse. 

Drongos. 

*436. Chibia hottentota (J. 286). 

Arakan. 

[Tonghoo, Karen hills (W. B.); Pahpoon, Moulmein (2).).] 

*437. Bheinga eemifee (J. 283). 
Arakan, Tenasserim. 

[Tonghoo, Karen hills {W. B.); Thayet Myo (0.). The Burman ex- 
amples, as well as Indian, are not separable from the Javan.] 

*438. Chaptia 2enea (J. 282). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. 

[Tonghoo, Karen hills, Karen nee (W. B.); Thayet Myo (0.). C. 
malayensis, A. Hay, is identical with the Sumatran Edolius picinus, S. 
Miiller, Bp. Consp. i. p. 352, the type of which I have compared at Leyden.] 

*439. Dissemtjetts paeadiseus (J. 284, partim). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. I provisionally bring together the various races 
of Bhimrdj (as they are designated in Bengal), because it appears to me that 
their differentiation is not yet sufficiently understood; but specimens from 
different localities differ much in size and in the development of the frontal 
crest. In some the latter is rudimentary, if it exist at all ; while in others 
it attains a length of 2£ in.,* the frontal plumes flowing over and beyond the 
occiput. The ordinary length in Burmese specimens is about 1|- in. In one 
specimen in the Calcutta Museum, which is believed to have been procured 
by Heifer, the frontal crest is rudimentary, whilst the racket tail-feathers 
attain very unusual length, the unwebbed portion of them being much more 
spirated than I have seen in any other. Again, there is one race, found 
especially in Tippera, with the frontal crest 2^- in. long, and the closed wing 
6f in. But, with the exception perhaps of this Tippera bird, there would 
seem to be all possible gradations in different localities, especially as regards 
the development of the frontal crest. The longest crested (or Tippera form) 
is styled Chibia malabaroides by Mr. Hodgson, f and the Edolius grandis, 
Gould,| is described to have the crest 1£ in. in length. E. paradiseus (Cu- 

* vide figure in J. A. S. B. xv. p. 295. 

t India Review, 1837, p. 325; syn. Lanius tnalabarieus, as figured by Latham and 
Shaw, not as described by Latham from Sonnerat's figure. 
% P. Z. S. 1836, p. 3. 



Drongos. J29 

cuius paradiseus, L.) is based on Brisson's Cuculus cristatus siamensis, 
founded on a drawing by Poivre of a Siamese specimen, and should therefore 
denote the ordinary Tenasserim bird, which is identical with the Bhimrdj of 
the Calcutta bird-dealers. As observed iD captivity, this species has astonish- 
ing powers of mimicry.* I had one which imitated the fine song of the 
Shama ( Cittocincla macroura) to perfection ; also the crowing of cocks, and 
every other sound produced by domestic poultry, the cawing of crows, the 
notes of various other wild birds, the bleating of calves, the cry of a dog 
being whipped, mewing of cats, etc. ; but I do not remember to have heard 
one sing in the wild state. Mason, however, mentions its loud, flute-like 
notes, and remarks of one that used to come at sunset every evening, and 
perch on a bough near his dwelling in Dong-yan; "there it would sit and 
pour forth an incessant strain of melody for half an hour at a time." As 
seen alive, it presents a very different appearance from the stuffed specimens 
exhibited in museums, the hackled feathers of the neck showing to advantage. 
When tamed it is very fearless and familiar, and may be suffered to have its 
liberty in country places. It preys with avidity on small birds and other 
animals. But with all its extraordinary faculty of imitating sounds, the 
Bhimrdj never attempts to articulate human speech, in which some examples 
of the hill maina {JEulabes) succeed so admirably. 

[Thayet Myo, Karen nee, Tonghoo, Rangoon (W. JR.). These examples 
agree with the Siam bird. An individual from Tonghoo, obtained by Major 
Lloyd, has the outer pair of rectrices feathered along the whole length of the 
inner side of the shaft. This is found occasionally to occur in individuals of 
many species of Dissemurus. JE. intermedins, Lesson, is founded on some 
species, with the outer pair of rectrices fully webbed. Malabar in- 
dividuals sometimes exhibit the same peculiarity. In D. megarhynchus it 
is normal. On the other hand, D. lophorhinus sometimes has the inner web 
wanting, except at the extremity of the outer rectrices.] 



*440. Buchanga atea (J. 278). 
Muscicapa atra, Hermann, if distinct from B. macrocerca of Java; Ibis, 1872, p. 119. 

Arakan. 

[Tonghoo, Karen nee, Eangoon ( W. JR.). Muscicapa atra is Hermann's 
title for the South Indian bird, which is invariably smaller than that of 
Northern and Eastern India. B. macrocercus, Vieillot=J£ longus, Tern., 
pertains to the Javan bird alone ; a distinct form. Some Burman examples 

* cf. Ibis, 1860, p. 99. 



130 



Birds of Burma. 



possess, while others want, the white rictal spot, an unstable character 
among the continental races, but never found, so far as at present recorded, 
in true B. macrocerca, nor in B. cathceca. Adult Tonghoo birds agree 
best in the relative proportions of the rectrices with B. cathceca.'} 

441. B. INTERMEDIA. 

D. intermedins, nobis, J. A. S. B. xv. p. 298 ; xxxix. pt. 2, p. 322 ; Viscount Walden in 
P. Z. S. 1866, p. 545. 

Arakan hills, near Bassein ( W. T. Blanford), South Tenasserira, Pinang, 
Malacca (Stolic%ka). 

[Tonghoo, Karen nee, Karen hills ( W. R.) ; Moulmein (Beavan). Lieut. 
W. Ramsay has sent from the localities cited a very numerous series of a 
species of Buchanga, which provisionally, until I have been able to examine 
typical Penang examples, are here referred to B. intermedia (Blyth). They 
vary but slightly in their dimensions when full grown. Wing, 5-25 ; outer pair 
of rectrices, 6-12 ; middle pair, 4*25. Nor is there much if any variation in 
their colouring when in perfect plumage. Lores, jet black; under surface, 
pure uniform bluish-ash, with little or no gloss ; above, glossy bluish-ash, 
somewhat darker than below, and paler on the rump ; rectrices, ashy-blue. 
They are almost identical in colouration with Javan B. leucophcea, that bird 
however being smaller, and having a less forked tail. Wing of B. leucophcea, 
5 ; outer pair of rectrices, 5*38 ; middle pair, 4. Among a large number of 
Javan birds I can find no variation of colouration when in perfect plumage. 
B. mouhoti, Walden, is not separable from this Burman form.] 

[442. B. PYRRHOPS. 
Dicrurus pyrrhops, Hodgs., Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 84, no. 553. 

Rangoon, {W. B.). 

The Rangoon examples sent by Lieutenant W. Ramsay are all referable 
to B. pyrrhops. They are identical with individuals from Deyra Doon, 
Nipaul, and Dacca. In colouration they do not differ from B. intermedia, 
but their dimensions are considerably larger. Wing, 5*75; outer pair of 
rectrices, 6-50; middle pair, 4*50. In perfect plumage they do not vary 
among one another. Nor can either they or B. intermedia be confounded 
with fully-plumaged examples of B. longicaudata, either from Malabar, 
Ceylon, Simla, Mussoorie, Nipaul, Darjeeling, and Asalu. The ashy Drongos 
have no representative in Southern India or in Ceylon. While B. longicau- 
data has no representative in Java, so far as is yet recorded, nor have I ever 
seen a Malaccan or Burman example of it. Along the lower ranges of the 



■ 



Flycatchers. jgi 

Himalaya it certainly occurs, and there meets B. pyrrhops. In immature 
plumage B. longicaudata might, by a superficial observer, be mistaken for B. 
pyrrhops. But in adult full dress it is as distinct as it is from B. atra, with 
which, however, it was also for long confounded. By some B. leucophcea, B. 
intermedia, and B. pyrrhops might be considered as constituting one species, 
but no author who had studied the subject would unite them with B. longi- 
caudata. The D. cineraceus, Horsf., apud Blyth (J. A. S. B. 1846, p. 299), 
and there described by Mr. Blyth from a Malaccan specimen presented by me 
to the Calcutta Museum, was an example of B. leucogenys, in the young 
plumage before the pure white cheeks are developed, and in which phase of 
plumage it may be easily mistaken for B. leucophaa. It ranges from Malacca 
through Siam, Camboja, and China, to Japan. It is not unlikely that it, 
as well as B. longicaudata, may be found to occur in Tenasserim. Mr. 
Blanford gives the last (Ibis, 1870, p. 468) from the Bassein district.] 

443. DlCEUEUS ANNECTENS (J. 279). 

Nipal, Tenasserim, Malacca. 

[Rangoon ( W. R.). B. affinis, Blyth, is synonymous.] 

Fam. Tchitread.se. 



Flycatchers. 
*444. TCHTTKEA AFFINIS (J. 289). 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Malacca. 

[Thayet Myo {W. R.). The oldest and correct generic title is Musci- 
peta, Cuvier. Count Salvadori (Uccelli, Borneo, p. 137) adopts Terpsiphone, 
dogger, a more recent title for an undefined genus.] 

[445. T. paradisi (J. 288). 

Mr. Hume thus identifies, but with doubt (Str. Feath. iii. p. 474), a 
single example of an "immature female" obtained at Lemyne by Mr. 
Davison.] 

[446. Philentoma velatum. 
Drymophila velata, Tem. P. C. 334. 
Om-ben-gwen {B.).~\ 



*"447. Hypothymys azukea (J. 290). 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Malay countries, Philippines. 

[Thayet Myo (0.).] 



Common. 



132 



Birds of Burma. 



*448. Myialestes cikekeicapilla (J. 295). 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Malacca. 

[Tsan koo hills, Karen nee, 3500 feet ( W. B.). The title of this genus 
must stand Culicicapa, Swinh., it having precedence over JEmpidothera, 
Sundev.] 

*449. Leucoceeca albieeootata (J. 292). 

Tonghoo. 

[Thayet Myo (0.). Lesson's specific title, aureola (Tr. p. 390), was 
published during the same year as that of Franklin. Until we have means of 
determining the month, or day of the month of the year 1831, on which the 
Traite was published, it will be most convenient to retain the title by which 
the species is best known. Franklin published his title on the 9th of 
August.] 

[450, L. albicollis (J. 291). 
Platyrhynchus albicollis, Vieillot, N. Diet. 27, p. 13 (1818). 
Karen nee hills, at 4000 feet {W. JR.); Pahpoon (D.); Thayet Myo 

(o.).-] 

451. L. JAVAKICA. 

Muscicapa javanica, Sparrman, Mus. Carls, pi. 75. 
Mergui, Siam. The common species of the Malay countries. 

[452. Chelidoejstyx hypoxantha (J. 294). 
Rhipidura hypoxantha, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii. pp. 930, 935. 
Tonghoo hills {W. JB.)0 

Fam. Brachypodiidse. 

Bulbuls. 



*453. Hypsipetes PSAEOiDES (J. 444). 
Arakan, Fokien province, China (Swinhoe). 

454. H. co^colob. 

H. concolor, nobis, J. A. S. B. xviii. p. 816, probably H. yunanensis, J. Anderson, 
P. Z. S. 1871, p. 213. 

Tenasserim mountains (Bhamo district?). This and the preceding, a 
Himalayan race (found also on the Khasias), the darker-coloured EJ. ganeesa 
of South India, the still darker H. nigerrimus, Gould, of Formosa, and the 
black JBJ. pemiger, Swinhoe, of Hainan, are geographical representatives of 



^™ 



— ! 



■H 



BuTbuls. 



133 



each other, or conspecies, and it is remarkable that Ceylon examples are not 
so dark coloured as are those from the mainland of South India, nor so grey 
as are Himalayan specimens. In Turdus melaleucus, J. E. Gray (IT. niveiceps, 
Swinhoe), of China, however, we have the same type, with the coral-red 
bill, but the black cap replaced by pure white; a remarkable variation, 
which is repeated among the black-headed and white-headed cinnamon - 
coloured munia grosbeaks. 

[Tonghoo, Karen hills, at 1500 feet. Iris, hair-brown; bill and legs, 
lake-red (W. R.). H. yunanensis, Anderson, is synonymous. The white- 
capped Chinese species must stand H. leucocephalus (6m.), founded on 
Sonnerat's Merle Dorniniquain de la Chine, Voy. Indes, ii. p. 191.] 

*'455. H. macclellakdi (J. 447). 
H. holti, Swinhoe, Ibis, 1861, p. 266. 
Arakan, South China. 

456. H. TICKELLI. 
H. tickelli, nobis, J. A. S. B. xxiv. p. 275. 

Tenasserim provinces. 

[Karen nee hills, 2500, 4000 feet. Iris, red-brown ; bill, brown ; legs, 
fleshy brown (TV. R.). IJnder-surface of body plumage hardly distinguish- 
able from the same in II. malaccensisJ] 

*457. lOLE VIKIDESCE^S. 

Iole viridescens, nobis, Ibis, 1867, p. 7 ; /. virescens, nobis, J. A. S. B. xiv. 573. 
Arakan, Khasias, Tippera, Tenasserim (where obtained by Heifer). 
[Tonghoo (X.); Yey-tho, Tsan koo hills (TV. J2.).] 

^458. Hemixus flavala (J. 448). 
Pycnonotus flavala (Hodgs.), Gray and Mitchell, Gen. Birds, pi. 59. 

EMsias, Arakan, Tenasserim. A representative species, H. castaneinotus, 
Swinhoe, inhabits Hainan. 

[iZ". hildelrandij Hume, Str. Feath. ii. p. 508. 

Karen hills, at 2000 feet. Iris (? ), lake-brown; bill, black; legs, light 
brown (TV. R.); forests north of Pahpoon (I).). A representative form, with 
the head and crest dark brown, not grey. Probably the species determined 
by Mr. Blyth as II. flavala.'] 

459. Teachycomus ockrocephalus. 

Turdus ockrocephalus , Gm. ; Tricophorus crispiceps, nobis, J. A. S. B. xi. p. 204. 
Mergui. Common at Malacca, Sumatra, Java, Borneo. 



4 Birds of Burma. 

*460. Ceiktoee elaveolus (J. 451). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. 

[C. griseiceps, Hume, Str. Feath. i. p. 478. 

Tonghoo hills, Karen nee (W. JR.); Upper Pegu (0.); north of Pahpoon 
(D.). Differs slightly from true V. flaveolm by having the feathers washed 
with a cinereous tinge, but does not appear to have been discriminated by 
Mr. Blyth.] 

461. C. OCHEACEITS. 

C. oehraeeus, Moore, Cat. E. I. C. Mus. i. p. 252. 
Tenasserim (obtained by Heifer). 
[This is a small form of T. guUuralis, S. Miiller.] 

[462. Alcttetis steiattjs (J. 449). 
Trichophorus striatus, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1842, p. 184. 
Tonghoo hills, at 5000 feet ( W. 12.).] 

*463. IXUS PINLAYSONT. 
Pycnonotus finlaysoni, Strickland, Ann. M. N. H. 1846, p. 411. 

Arakan, Tenasserim provinces, Siam. " This," remarks Mason, " is a 
very common bird in Moulmein, and in the dry season its musical, though 
little varied notes, are often heard. It is rarely seen at Tavai." 

[Tonghoo hills, Karen hills {W. 12.).] 

[464. I. ANNECTENS. 

I. annectens, "Walden, Ann. M. N. H. (4), 15, p. 401. 
Eangoon(7T. 12.).] 

465. I. BLANEOEDI. 
Pycnonotus blanfordi, Jerdon, Ibis, 1862, p. 20 ; Pycnonotus familiaris, nobis, J. A. S. B. 
xxxi. 343. 

Yery abundant at Thayet Myo. 

[Tonghoo (7F. 12.).] 

*466. I. FLAVESCENS. 
Pycnonotus Jlaveseens, nobis, J. A. S. B. xiv. 563 ; P. luteolus, from Siam apud Horsf. 
and Moore, Cat. E. I. C. Mus. 1, p. 243 (?).* 

Khasias, Arakan. 

[Tonghoo hills, Karen nee, at from 2500 to 4000 feet. Iris, light 
brown ; bill and legs, black ( W. 12.) ; north of Pahpoon (D.).] 

* Gould gives P. goiavier {Muscicapa goiavier, Scopoli) from Siam (P. Z. S. 1859, 
p. 151). The true I. goiavier, however, is peculiar to the Philippines, and the species in- 
tended by Mr. Gould must stand as I. analis. 



Bulbuh. 



135 



467. Otocompsa monticola. 

Ixos monticolus, M'Clelland, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 160 ; Ibis, 1867, p. 440. 

Khasias, Tenasserim provinces. Probably 0. jocosa, var. sinensis, J. 
Anderson, from Bhamo. Barely separable from 0. jocosa of Bengal and 
Northern India, which again only differs from 0. fascicaudata, Gould, of 
South India, by having white spots on its rectrices. Another instance of 
different local races or conspecies. Mason remarks that this is one of the 
most common birds in the neighbourhood of Tavoy. 

[Rangoon, Tonghoo, Karen nee, Karen hills (W. 22.). The Bengal 
bird must take the specific title of emeria, Lin., even if the Chinese race, 
Lanius jocosus, Lin., is identical with it, as stated by Mr. Swinhoe, and 
who is doubtless correct. Linnaeus described the Bengal Bulbul twice 
over in the 12 th edition of the Sy sterna, once under the genus Lanius, 
and again under Museicapa, but both times with the same specific title, 
emeria."] 

*468. Pycnonotus hjsmoerhous (J. 462), 
Tardus cafer, 6m., founded on Merle huppe du Gap de bonne esperance, P. E. 563, fig. 1. 
Specimens from Arakan and South India appear to me to be undis- 
tinguishable, although the larger and much blacker P. pygceus takes its 
place in Lower Bengal. 

[Thayet Myo, Tonghoo, Eangoon (W. II.) . Eangoon examples more 
properly fall under the race named pygceus by Hodgson. This appropriate 
title, which had been adopted by Jerdon, Blyth, and other accurate authors, 
was changed, through misprint or other error, in the Hand-List, "No. 3957, 
to the inappropriate title of pygmceus. H. pusillus, Blyth, founded on the 
South Indian bird, is a synonym of true P. hcemorrhous.] 






469. P. isriGRXPiLEUs. 
P. nigropileus, nobis, J. A. S. B. xvi. p. 472. 

Tenasserim provinces. Common. Another representative race of the 
preceding, which again only differs from P. crocorrhous, Strickland, of Java, 
in having the lower tail-coverts crimson .* 

[Tonghoo, Karen hills (W. R.) ; Moulmein, Amherst (2).).] 



* P. xanthorrhous, J. Anderson (P. A. S. B. 1869, p. 265; P. andersoni, Swinhoe), 
is a species described from Yunan and from the Ichang gorge of the Upper Yang-tsze. 



136 Birds of Burma . 

[470. P. ATRICAPILLT7S. 

Muscicapa atricapilla, Vieill. N. Diet. 21, p. 489 (1818) ; A. Hay, M. J. L. Sc. xiii. p. 
160; Ibis, 1866, p. 318. 

Hcematornis chrysorrhoides, Lafr., "Rev. Zool. 1845, p. 367. 

Karen nee, from 1000 to 2000 feet ( W. JR.); Pahpoon, Meeta Myo hills, 
Tavoy (Z).).] 

*471. BlTBIGTJLA ELAYIYEOTKIS (J. 456). 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam. Common. 
[Bangoon, Tonghoo, Karen nee (W. B.).] 

*472. Beachypodius melakocephalits. 
Lanius melanocephalus ^ Gm. ; Turdus atriceps, Tern., P.O. 147. JBok-iva. 

Tippera, Arakan, Tenasserim provinces, Malacca, Sumatra. Dr. Stoliczka 
remarks that he has seen this species " darting after insects almost like a 
Flycatcher." 

[Karen nee {W. JR.).'] 

[473. B. CIJSTEKEIYEOTRIS. 
B. cinereiventris, Blyth, J. A. S. B. 1845, p. 576. 

Tonghoo {W. JR.). I have great doubts whether this is a species distinct 
from B. melanocephalus. It seems to be rather a variety, the yellow of the 
nape and under surface being changed to grey. A Malaccan example in my 
collection is in a stage of transition from yellow to grey. "Where not grey, 
these examples do not differ from B. melanocephalus. Mr. Blyth describes 
{I. c.) "the tail-feathers as being less deeply tipped with yellow," etc., 
but the rectrices in these two examples are identical with those of Malaccan 
and Burman specimens of B. melanocephalus. In Sumatran Ixus chalco- 
cephalus all the yellow plumage of B. melanocephalus is changed to grey, the 
black and metallic parts only remaining the same in the two forms. Whether 
it be considered as a distinct species or not, B. cinereiventris is an interesting 
example of an "incipient" species.] 

Subfam. Phyllornithinje (Hurriahs). 

474. Phyllobots jaye^sis. 
Meliphaga javensis, Horsfield; Chloropsis sonnerattii, Jard. and Selby, Ill^Orn. pi. 1O0 ; 
Gould, B. As. pt. xiii. pi. 6. 

This Malayan species was obtained on Moule-it mountain by CoL Tickell.^ 
[Ye (2).).] 

* J. A. S. B. xxiv. p, 277. 



■™ 



Bulhuls. 



137 



*475. P. hodgsoni (J. 465). 
P. hodgsoni, Gould, B. As. pt. xiii. pi. 8. Bgnet-seing (generic). 
Arakan; also obtained by Mr. W. T. Blanford seventy miles above Ava* 
[Rangoon, Tonghoo, Yey-tho, Thayet Myo, Karen nee (W. JR.), The 
continental species seems to have been separated from the Sumatran, on in- 
sufficient evidence. The Malaccan form is considerably smaller.] 

*476. P. CHLOEOCEPHALUS. 

P. chlorocephalus, Walden, Ann. M. N. H. (4), 1871, vol. vii. 241 ; Tardus cochin- 
is, Gm. (?). 

Arakan, Tenasserim ; has been obtained also on the Garo hills. 
[Tonghoo, Karen nee, at 1600 feet (W. i2.).] 

*477. P. hakdwickii (J. 466). 
Chloropsis hardwickii, Jard. and Selby ; Gould, B. As. pt. xiii. pi. 7. 

Arakan, Tenasserim mountains. P. lazulina, Swinhoe, of Hainan, is 
barely separable. 

[Tonghoo hills, Karen hills, from 3500 to 4000 feet (W. P.). P. lazu- 
lina has the shoulder patch coloured like the moustache, and the crown 
cinereous green.] 

*478. loBA LAEEESXAYII. 

Iora lafresnayii, Hartlaub, Rev. Zool. 1844, p. 401 ; Mag. de Zool. 1845, t. 60; 
Stoliezka, J. A. S. B. xxxix. pt. ii. p. 309 ; $ I. innotaia, nobis, J. A. S. B. xvi. p. 472. 

Arakan, Malacca. Apparently of rare occurrence. 

\Pkcenicomanes iora, Sharpe, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 427, pi. 54, is synony- 
mous. As long since pointed out (Ibis, 1866, p. 317), if Sylvia leucoptera, 
Yieill., is a species of Iora, and there can be but little doubt that it is, 
Vieillot's generic title of JEgithina must supersede Horsfield's.] 

*479. I. typhia (J. 468). 
/. typhia, Ibis, 1867, p. 10. 

Indo-Chinese countries generally, Malayan peninsula, Sumatra, Java, 
and Borneo. Throughout this range of distribution it never shows the 
black upper parts of I. %eylonica, but there co-exists with it in the Malay 
countries, the I. scapularis, Horsfield, the male of which is L viridissima, 
Temminck. 

[Rangoon, Tonghoo, Karen nee (W. JR.). Javan I. scapularis, ?, is 
certainly not separable from I. typhia, ? ; the bill however is shorter. /. 

* J. A. S. B. xxxii. p. 79. 






138 



Birds of Burma. 



viridissima is not the male of I. scapularis. I. viridis, Bp., may be the male 
of I. scapularis, but then it is difficult to separate I. viridis from I. typhia. 
I. viridis, described from Bornean examples, occurs also at Malacca, and is the 
species referred to above as the I. typhia of those countries. It is certainly 
of a much deeper yellow underneath than I. typhia of India and Burma, 
having the chin, cheeks, throat, breast, and under tail-coverts intense golden, 
much deeper than in /. zeylonica in full plumage, and it is but little less 
brilliant in the female. The bill, too, is somewhat stouter than in I. typhia, 
and much more so than in Javan I. scapularis, a character also relied on by 
Bonaparte. As it is possible that /. typhia does sometimes assume this rich 
golden colour, although in the many individuals I have examined I have 
never met with one, I. viridis had better, for the present, remain a synonym 
of I. typhia. Of the males, one Tonghoo example (April 19) has the inter- 
scapulary region black. Another (April 15) has the entire head and nape 
black. A Rangoon individual (June 6) has the occiput and nape black, 
forehead mixed black and green, some interscapulars turning to black, or re- 
verting to green. All the rest (a large series) green above. A Karen nee male, 
in otherwise typical plumage, has the middle pair of rectrices broadly tipped 
(quarter of an inch) with green, remainder very narrowly tipped with green, 
outer pair fringed on inner and outer margins, and tipped with the same colour. 
This example has the chin, cheeks, throat, and breast very deep yellow, but 
not golden, as in I. viridis. The mutations, both in colouring and markings, 
which exhibit themselves in all the members of this genus, have been too little 
studied and are too little known to entitle any one at present to pronounce dog- 
matically on the subject. The problem is a much deeper one than whether I. 
zeylonica and 1. typhia are to stand in our lists as titles representing one species 
or two distinct species. The admitted fact that the occurrence of birds in the 
I. zeylonica garb are exceptional in Burma and the rule in Ceylon and penin- 
sular India, whereas breeding males are rarely (as yet recorded) found in 
Ceylon and peninsular India in /. typhia plumage, is one that cannot be dis- 
posed of or accounted for by a mere dogmatic assertion that all belong to one 
species. Cf. Captain Cock (Hume, Nests and Eggs, p. 297).] 

Subfam. Ireninje (Irenas). 

*480. Ieena puella (J. 469). ■ 

Coracias puella, Lath. ; nee Muscicapa cyanea, Begbie, v. Irena malayensis, Moore ; cf. 
Viscount Walden, Ann. M. N. H. (4), v. p. 417; J. A. S. B. xxviii. p. 274. 
Arakan, Tenasserim. 
[Tonghoo, Karen hills (W. JR.); Thayet Myo (0.). The Irena of the 



Orioles. 



139 



Karen hills very closely resembles the Malabar bird ; the colour of the males 
is however perhaps a shade lighter, approaching more nearly to /. cyaneaJ] 



Fam. Oriolidsa. 



Orioles. 



*481. PsAROPHOLUS TEAILLII (J. 474). 
Pastor trailliiy Vigors ; Gould, B. As. pt. xxiii. pi. 5. 

Arakan, Tenasserim. A mountain species, inhabiting the more elevated 
forests. In Hainan and Formosa it is represented by P. ardens, Swinhoe, as 
in Java by 0. sanguinolentus, Tern. 

[Tonghoo, Karen hills, Karen nee [W. JR.). Swainson's generic title, 
Analcipus, has precedence. The oldest title for the Javan species is cruentus, 
"Wagler.] 

*482. Oeioltjs mela^ocephalus (J. 472). 
Loriot de la Chine, P.E. 79. 

Arakan, Tenasserim provinces, Malayan peninsula. 
[Tonghoo, Yey-tho, Thayet Myo, Karen nee (W. P.).] 

*483. 0. indicts (J. 471). 

0. indicus, Jerdon, 111. Orn. pi. 15. 

Arakan, Tenasserim, China, Java. The Couliavan of Buffon, P. E. 
570, upon which is founded 0. chinensis, L., does not represent this species, 
but 0. acrorhynchus, Vigors, which appears to be peculiar to the Philippines. 

[Eangoon (TV. JR.). The Eangoon individuals, all in perfect plumage, 
cannot be separated from China examples. They must therefore take the 
title of 0. chinensis. The title of 0. hippocrepis, "Wagler, cannot be used 
for any species of Oriole, as it was applied to Indian, China, Cochinchina, 
Javan, and Sumatran examples generally, and, moreover, included the Philip- 
pine 0. acrorhynchus. D'Aubenton's plate, above alluded to (P. E. 570), the 
subject of which may have been described by Montbeillard, not Buffon (Hist. 
Nat. Ois. iii. p. 262), certainly agrees best with 0. acrorhynchus, "Vigors. But 
Linnaeus founded no title on it* Montbeillard identified, by reference, his 
Coulavan with Brisson's 0. cochinsinensis, described from individuals obtained 
in Cochinchina by Poivre, and brought by him to Reaumur. On Brisson's 
species 0. chinensis, Lin., was founded, but the description in the "Ornitho- 
logia" applies better to the Chinese bird than to the Philippine.] 



140 Birds of Burma. 

# 484. 0. TEISTUIEOSTEIS. 
0. tenuirostris, nobis, J. A. S. B. xv. 48. 

Arakan, Pegu, Martaban. Apparently not common, and distinguished 
from the preceding species by having a much more slender bill. 

[Tonghoo (Z.) ; Thayet Myo, Karen nee {W. B.) ; Kollidoo (D.).] 

Fam. BTectarinidss. 

Sunbirds. 



*485. Abachkotheea magna (J. 223). 
Arakan, Tenasserim. 

*486. A. AIJKATA. 
A. aurata, nobis, J. A. S. B. xxviii. p. 416. 

Tonghoo. 

[Karen hills, at 2500 feet {W. B.). Jerdon (B. Ind. i. p. 861) refers 
to an Arachnothera phayrei, Blyth, from Pegu. I cannot find that Blyth 
ever published any such title. Jerdon states that A. phayrei is very close to 
A. magna. A. aurata is noted in my private memoranda (written some years 
ago) on Jerdon's work, as being intended: a correction almost certainly 
entered, as in many other instances, after personal reference to Blyth or 
Jerdon, although the circumstance has escaped my memory. There is a 
Nectarinia phayrei, Blyth, a title Jerdon may have had in his mind. As 
Blyth does not include A. phayrei in this list, it is most probable that he 
never published such a title, and that it occurs (7. c.) through a slip of the 
pen.] 

♦487. A. pusilla (J. 224). 

Tippera, Arakan, Tenasserim, Pinang, Malacca, Sumatra. 

[Tonghoo {W. JR.). This species must take the specific title of longi- 
rostra, Lath., Ind. Orn. i. p. 299. One Tonghoo example, shot in April, has 
the orange pectoral tufts fully developed ; while in another ( & ), obtained on 
the 20th of that month, they are absent. Javan individuals can hardly be 
separated.] 

[488. A. MODESTA. 
Anthreptes ntodesta, Eyton, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 105. 
Meeta Myo (D.). Thus identified by Mr. Hume.] 



Sunbirds. 



141 



*489. Aracthnechthra asiatica (J. 234). 

Certhia asiatica, Latham ; Ibis, 1870, p. 20 ; A. intermedia (?), A. 0. Hume,lbis, 1870, 
p. 436, from Tippera. 

Arakan, "ThayetMyo, Yenan-khyoung" {Blanford). A. intermedia is 
described to have the bill of intermediate length to those of A. asiatica and 
A. lotenia ; but neither Mr. "W. T. Blanford nor myself distinguished the 
more eastern form from that common in North India. 

[Tonghoo, Thayet Myo, Karen nee ( W. R.) ; general, north of Ye {D.). 
A. intermedia cannot claim specific rank.] 

*490. A. FLAMMAXILLARIS. 

Nectarinia jlammaxillaris, nobis; Ibis, 1870, p. 24. 

x\rakan, Tenasserim, Pinang, Siam, South China (?). 

[Rangoon, Yey-tho {W. J2.).] 

*491. iETHOPYGA MILES (J. 225). 
Cinnyris miles, Hodgs. ; Ibis, 1870, p. 32. 

Yiscount Walden remarks that Moulmein and Tippera specimens in his 
collection are smaller than those from the Deyra Doon and from Nipal. 
"From Tippera, wing 2*12, tail 2'72, bill *57; from the Deyra Doon, wing 
2- 1§, tail 3*18, bill 6. The Moulmein specimen is still smaller." 

[Tonghoo (X.). Some five years ago I pointed out {I.e.) that Moulmein 
and Tippera specimens differed from Deyra Doon and JSTipaul individuals, 
but I refrained from separating the former specifically until the variations 
that JK, miles undergoes had been investigated. "While identifying the 
Tenasserim race (south of Moulmein) with N. lathami, Jard., Mr. Hume 
(Str. Eeath. ii. p. 473, note) has bestowed on it the specific title of cava. 
The Tenasserim and Tonghoo race does slightly differ from true JE. miles, 
but it certainly is not M. Miami, which is described as having a blue front 
and upper tail-coverts, and black interior maxillary stripes. There can be 
little doubt that N. lathami \&—M. eupogon.~] 

*492. M. GoiJXDiiE (J. 227). 
Cinnyris gouldice, Vigors; Ibis, 1870, p. 35. 

Mountains of Arakan, where probably also occur JE. nipalensis, 2E. satu- 
rata, and JE. ignicauda, all of which inhabit the EMsias. 

[493. JE. DEBBII. 
Kectarinia debryii, G. Verr., R. M. Zool. 1867, pi. 15 ; Walden, Ibis, 1870, p. 35. 
Karen nee, at 4000 feet. Iris ( t ), bill, and legs, brown ( W. R,). A 



142 



Birds of Burma. 



representative form of JE. gouldice, from which it only differs by having the 
breast vermilion.] 

[494. JE. SAITOTJTNTPECTTJS. 
JE. sanguinipectus, Walden, Ann. M. N. H. (4), 15, p. 400 (1st June, 1875). 
Karen nee hills, at from 2500 to 3000 feet (W. '22.).] 

*495. IfECTAEOPHILA HASSELTI. 

Nectarinia hasseltii, Tern. ; Certhia brasiliana, Gm. ; Ibis, 1870, p. 41. 
Tippera, Arakan, Tenasserim, Pinang, Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo. 

^'496. AlSTTHOTHREPTTTS MALACCEKSIS. 
Certhia, malaccensis, Scopoli; Ibis, 1870, p. 47. 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam, Cambodia, Malacca, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, 
Celebes, and Sula Islands, but "does not reach the Moluccas" {Wallace). 

*497. Chalcopaeia PHiEisricoTis. 

Nectarinia phcenicotis, Tern. ; Certhia singalensis, Gmelin; Ibis, 1870, p. 48. 
Tippera, Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam, Malacca, Sumatra, Java, Borneo. 
[Bangoon, Tonghoo (W. B.).'] 

^498. Dictum cbuektatum (J. 236). 

Certhia cruentata, Lin.; Gould, B. As. part vi.pl. — 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Pinang, Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo. Yery abundant 
in the vicinity of Mergui station. 

[Rangoon, Yey-tho, Tonghoo (W. B.) ; Thayet Myo (F.). The race 
which inhabits Sarawak has been specifically separated by Count Salvadori 
under the title of D. nigri-mentum (TJcc. Borneo, p. 165). Malaccan indi- 
viduals appear also to differ, although but slightly, from Burman, Bengal, 
and Assam examples.] 

*499. D. TEiGOisrosTiaMA. 

Certhia trigonostigma, Scopoli; C. cantillans % Latham (cf. Stoliczka, J. A. S. B, xxxix. 
pi 2, p. 303). 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo. 
[Karen hills, at 3000 feet (W. 22.).] 

*500. D. CHRYSOHRH^UM (J. 237). 

KMsias, Arakan, Tenasserim, Malacca. 

[Tonghoo. Iris (£, ? ), brown; bill, black; legs, dark slate-colour 

{W.B.).-] 



Pigeons. 



143 



*501. D. EEYTHKOEHYKCHA (J. 238). 
Certhia erythrorhyncha, Latham, Ind. Orn. i. p. 299 ; Nectarinia minima, Tickell. 

Latham's title was founded on the drawing of a young specimen, with 
the colour of the bill exaggerated. A still smaller species from Hainan 
has been described as B. minullum, Swinhoe, Ibis, 1870, p. 240. 

Arakan, Tenasserim. Exceedingly abundant in the jungles near Moul- 
mein, and coming within reach of the hand if the spectator remains motionless. 

[There is nothing in Latham's text to indicate that he described from a 
drawing.] 

[502. D. yieesce^ts. 
D. virescens, Hume, Str. Peath. ii. p. 198. 
Pahpoon and neighbourhood (i>.)-] 

[503. D. OLIYACEUM. 

D. olivaceum, Walden, Ann. M. N. H. (4), 15, p. 401 (June 1st, 187o). 
Tonghoo hills, Karen hills (W. R.).~] 

[504. Myzaothe ictipectiis (J. 241). 
Karen nee, at 4000 feet (W. JR.).'] 

Order GEMITOEES. 



Fam. Treronidee. 

Hurrials. 

* ? 505. Touia otpale^sis (J. 771). 

Not uncommon in Arakan ; occurs also in the Malayan peninsula, and in 
Sumatra. 

[Pegu hills (0.); Tenasserim (D.). The generic title, Toria, must give 
way to Treron. The species seems to be identical with T. nasica ; if so, its 
range extends to Borneo.] 

*506. Ceocopus yiridifkoxs. 
Treron viridifrons, nobis, J. A. S. B. xiv. p. 849 ; Bonap., Icon, des Pigeons, pi. 9. 

Pegu, Tenasserim provinces, Siam. This race is barely separable from 
C. phcenicopterus, but its colours are always purer and more strongly con- 
trasted. Mr. W. T. Blanford, however, gives C. phcenicopterus from Ava, in 
addition to C. viridifrons from Eassein and Thayet Myo.*' 

[Tonghoo {TV.R.).~] 

* Ibis, 1870, p. 469. 



144 



Birds of Burma. 



*507. OsMOTEEBON PHAYEEI (J. 776). 

Common in Arakan and Pegu, rare in Lower Bengal* In colour it quite 
resembles Toria nipalensis, but the bill is very differently shaped. 
[Tonghoo (W. JR.) ; Tenasserim (2).).] 

*508. 0. biczn-cta (J. 774). 

Arakan, Pegu, Tenasserim provinces, Siam, Malacca (fide "Walden) and 
India generally. A slightly different race inhabits Hainan (0. dornvillei, 
Swinhoe).* Erom Siam Mr. Gould notes the allied T. viridis (Scopoli)= 
vernanSy Lin., in addition to 0. hicincta. 0. viridis is a common Malayan 
species, which is likely to occur in South Tenasserim. 

[Tonghoo (W. JR.). The common Malayan species alluded to is Columba 
vernans, Lin. Mr. Hume notes it from Tenasserim (Str. Feath. i. p. 461, 
and iii. p. 162), but does not include it in his list of Tenasserim birds (op. 
cit. ii. p. 481.] 

[509. Sphenoceecus sphenfrtis (J. 778). 

[Tonghoo hills (W. R.) ; hills north of Pahpoon (D.).] 

4 [510. S. apicaudus (J. 779). 
Tonghoo hills (W. JR.); hills north of Pahpoon (Z>.).] 



Fam. Columbidse. 

Pigeons and Doves. 
Subfara. Carpophagin^e (Fruit Pigeons). 

*511. Carpophaga insigknts (J. 781). 

Mountains of Arakan. f 

In the Leyden Museum I remarked that C. insignis (Hodgson) appeared 
to be the same as C. badia (Baffles), the former being rather brighter in 
colouring ; while C. lacernulata (Tern.), of Sumatra and Java, is rather smaller 
with a distinct grey cap. 

[_C. lacernulata is, as yet, only with certainty recorded as an habitant 
of Java.] 

*512. C. ,exea(J. 780). 
Bung-madie. 

Generally diffused over British Burma, and identical with the species as 
found in Central India and in the Andaman Islands ; while the correspond- 

* Ibis, 1870, p. 534. f cf. J. A. S. B. xxviii. p. 416. 



Pigeons and Doves. 14 5 

ing bird of the Mcobars (C. insularis, nobis*) is constantly distinguishable. 
C. rosacea (Tern.), from Timor, etc., differs very slightly. In Southern India 
and Ceylon the race is smaller, but otherwise similar (C. pusilla, nobis f). 
Of this small race I observed four specimens from Travancore and Ceylon in 
the Museum at Ley den. 
[Tonghoo (Z.).] 

513. C. BICOLOE. 

Columba bicolor, Scopoli; Sonnerat, Voy. t. 103 ; C alba, Gmelin; C. littoralis, Tern. 
Mergui archipelago, Nicobar Islands, Malayan peninsula. 

Subfam. Columbine (Pigeons). 

514. Alsocomus pumceus (J. 782). 

Arakan, Tenasserim, not uncommon on Eamri Island; Central India, 
Ceylon. It is nearly allied to Columba ianthina-,% and an unnamed species of 
the Palumbus or Cushat group from Siam (Xiengmai) would seem to be 
indicated by the late Sir E. H. Schomburgk.§ 

[Tonghoo (JV. R.). The examples constituting the large series obtained 
at Tonghoo by Lieutenant W. Ramsay in no way differ from Maunbhoom 
and Upper Assam individuals.] 

*515. Columba livia (J. 788). 

Columba livia, var. intermedia, Strickland ; C. turricola, Bonap. 

Common, as throughout India, and only differing from the wild 
European livia in having no white above the tail. It everywhere grades into 
the domestic Pigeon. 

*516. Tfrtue teakqtjebaricus (J. 797). 
Turtur tranquebaricus, Hermann, Obs. Zool. p. 200. Gyo (generic). 
Arakan. 

[Karen nee ( W. R.). The Karen nee examples belong to true T. humilis 
of the Philippines, and not to T. tranquebaricus.~\ 

*517. T. TIGKZNTJS. 
Columba tigrina, Tern. ; Knip, Pig. pi. 43. 
Indo-Chinese and Malayan countries. This can hardly be considered as 



* J. A. S. B. xv. p. 371. 

% Fauna Japonica, Aves, t. lx, c. 



t op, cit. xviii. p. 816. 
§ Ibis, 1864, p. 250. 



10 



146 



Birds of Burma. 



being other than a race of T. suratensis, of India with Ceylon, but, except 
where the two come in contact, the difference would seem to be maintained. 
[Yey-tho, Thayet Myo {W. JR.). Mr. Hume, Str. Feath. iii. p. 164) 
speaks of " typical tigrina from Sumatra." As the species, T. tigrinus, was 
not described from a Sumatran individual, it is difficult to gather what is 
meant by the expression " typical/'] 

*518. T. mee^a (J. 793). 
Gyo-peing- tu-ma. 

Arakan, Tenasserim. A specimen of T. cambaiensis flew on board a 
steamer when in sight of land on the voyage from Moulmein to Rangoon.* 4 
[Tonghoo, Karen nee, at 4000 feet {W. B.).] 

[519. T. eisoeius (J. 796). 

Thayet Myo (F.). Professor Schlegel (Mus. P.-Bas, Columbae, p. 123) 
adopts the title of T. douraca, Hodgs., for this Indian dove, and restricts the 
Linnaean title to the domestic bird of Europe (t. c. p. 125). But all the 
authors Linnaeus quotes described the bird from India. It is the Turtur 
indicus of Aldrovandi, and Linnaeus says "habitat in India""] 

520. Maceopygia etjficeps. 
Columba rujiceps, Tern. ; P.O. 561. 

Mergui, Province Wellesley, Java. A finer species akin to this inhabits 
the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, M. ruftpennis, nobis ;f and the M. tusalia 
is likely to occur on the higher mountains of Arakan, if not further south ; it 
is not rare on the Khasias, and a smaller race of the same is described from 
Hainan. J 

[This Javan species may occur as stated, but the following appears to be 
the commoner form.] 

[521. M. ASSIMILIS. 
M. assimilis, Hume, Str. Feath. ii. p. 441. 
* Karen hills, at 3000 feet. Iris (¥ ), grey; bill and legs, vinous brown 
{W. B.); Kollidoo (D.).] 

[522. M. tusalia (J. 791). 

Karen nee {W. B.); Kollidoo (2).)-] 



* Beavan, Ibis, 1869, p. 406. f J. A. S. B. xv. p. 371. 

% Ibis, 1870, p. 355. 



Pheasants, etc. 



147 



*523. Chalcophaps indices (J. 798). 

India, Indo-China, and Malay countries, Andaman Islands; but the 
Nicobar race* is a little peculiar, and corresponds with C. mar ice, Bonap. 

[Rangoon, Tonghoo, foot of Karen hills (W. It.)-, Tenasserim (D.). 
Eecent investigations do not confirm the opinion that the Nicobar race of 
this species differs.] 

Subfara. Cal(enin j e (Hackled Ground-Pigeons). 

524. Cakenas nicobakictts. 
Columba nicobarica, Lin. ; Edwards, pi. 339 ; PL Enl. 491. 

This remarkable bird is common in the Mergui archipelago, and I have 
received the young from the Cocos Islets, north of the Andamans. It seems 
to be only able to maintain itself in islands where there are no small carnivor- 
ous mammalia; and I doubt, therefore, the statement that it is "common on 
the Tenasserim coast."f 

Order GALLIBACEJE. 

Poultry-Birds. 

Fam. Pavonidae. 

Pheasants, etc. 

Sub fam. Payoninje (Peafowl). 

*525. Payo muticus. 
Pavo muticus, L. Oo-doung. Elliot, Mon. Phas. pt. ii. pi. 11. 

Chittagong, Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam. Invariably of darker and less 
vivid colouring than the species as it occurs in Java, but not otherwise 
differing. In the provinces of Sylhet and Assam the Indian species, P. cris- 
tatus, replaces it. % 

It is doubtful, at present, whether this species really inhabits the 
Malayan peninsula or Sumatra; but Crawfurd distinctly asserts that it 
inhabits "the tropical countries lying between India and China, — of the 
Malayan peninsula, and the islands of Sumatra and Java."§ On the other 
hand, "Wallace remarks that " it is a singular fact in geographical distribution 
that the Peacock should not be found in Sumatra or Borneo, while the superb 



* J. A. S. B.xv. p. 371. 

% Calc. J. N. H. ii. p. 144. 



t Calc. J. N. H. i. p. 605. 

§ Tr. Ethn. Soc. n.s. vol. ii. p. 451. 



148 



Birds of Burma. 



Argus, fire-backed, and ocellated Pheasants of those islands are equally 
unknown in Java."* Baffles must mean this species when he states that 
" the common Peacock is a native of the Malayan peninsula and of Java, and 
is also known to Sumatra.' ' He gives the Malayan name as M'ree or Mar ah, 
but in Sumatra he may only have seen tame Peafowl, imported from Java. 
The late Dr. Cantor had specimens in his collection from Pinang and Pro- 
vince Wellesley, but whether procured there in the wild state I am unaware ; 
it may be remarked, however, that the same collection contained specimens 
of Gallus varius, which is understood to be quite peculiar to Java. 

[The occurrence of this species in Burma offers a notable instance of the 
fact that Javan forms, unknown in the Malay peninsula south of Pinang, and 
in Sumatra and Borneo, reappear in Burma.] 



Subfam. Argus an inte. 

526. Abgusanus giganteiis. 
Phasianus argus, L. ; Elliot, Mon. Phas. pt. iii. pi. 2. 
Mergui, Malayan peninsula, Sumatra. 

*527. PoLYPLECTKON CHIKQUIS. 

Polyplectron chinquis, Temminck ; Pavo tibetanus, L. ; Gould, B. As. pt. xxiii. fig. 1 ; 
Elliot, Mon. Phas. pt. ii. pi. 8. Doung-Kula, Monuwur, and £ay-o-da-huk. 

Sylhet, Assam, Tenasserim provinces; South- West China (Swinhoe). 

[The oldest name for this species is P. thibetanus, but as it involves a 
geographical error, Temminck's title is adopted by most authors.] 

Subfam. Phasianjkze (Pheasants). 

528. Gallus eeeeiighsteus (J. 812). 

Tetrao ferrugineus, Gm. ; Elliot, Mon. Phas. pt. ii. pi. 9. 

The wild common Fowl. Abundant in the forests, and the domestic 
poultry of the Karens is commonly recruited from the wild race, which is not 
the case in those parts of northern and central India where the wild and 
tame inhabit the same forest districts. The cheek-lappet of the cock is pure 
white and contrasting in the Indian race, aud red in the Indo-Chinese race. 
The tarsi are always slate-coloured in the wild bird, but tend to become 
yellow in the domestic before any other change is perceptible. 

[Tonghoo {W. JR.); Tenasserim (Z>.).] 



* Malay Archipelago, i. p. 169. 



Pheasants , etc. 149 

*529. Nycthemebits lusteatus. 

Phasianus lineatus, Latham; P. reynaudii, Lesson; P. fasciatus, McClelland ; Elliot, 
Mon. Phas. pt, iii. pi. 7. Teet. 

Pegu, Martaban, Tenasserim. Common down to the sea-level or nearly 
so. In Arakan the race is hybrid (Zophophorus cuvieri)* and presents every 
gradation from N. lineatus to G. horsfieldi] of Tippera and Sylhet.J 

[Karen hills ( W. JR.). Wagler's generic title Gennmus has precedence.] 

530. JST. A1STDEKSOET. 

Euplocamus andersoni, Elliot, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 137; Mon. Phas. pt. v. pi. 11. 

This fine species, intermediate to JV. lineatus and the well-known Silver 
Pheasant, JY. argentatus, Swainson,§ was discovered by Dr. J. Anderson in 
Yunan. 

Another beautiful species, Diardig alius prcelatus, Bonap.,)] inhabits the 
Shan States, and is now bred in European vivaria. According to M. Germain, 
this bird is common through the forest region of French Cochin-China. 

In the Yunan mountains the superb Lady Amherst Pheasant % was 
obtained by Dr. J. Anderson. 

[The oldest published title with a description for D. prcelatus, is crau- 
furdii, J. E. Gray (Cuv. E. An. (Griffith), Aves, iii. p. 27). Mr. Craufurd 
brought the type ( ¥ ) from Ava, but we have no evidence that the species is 
indigenous to Burma, and it is therefore not here included.] 

531. ElIPLOCOMUS IGNITUS. 

Phasianus ignitus, Latham ; E. vieillotti, Gray ; Gould, B. As. pt. ii. pi. 8 ; Elliot, 
Mon. Phas. pt. ii. pi. 10. 

This large Malayan Pheasant is common along the valley of the great 
Tenasserim river. Kachar. 



Subfam. PEEDiciNiE (Partridges). 

*'532. Ekancolhsttts phaykei. 

Francolinus phayrei, nobis, J. A. S. B. xii. p. 1011 ; xxiv. p. 480. 
Common in Pegu, and a young example is contained in the British 
Museum from Cochin-China. Yery similar to F. sinensis (Tetrao chinensis, 

* Tern., P.C. v. pi. 1. f Elliot, Mon. Phas. pt. iv. pi. 4. 

X vide J. A. S. B. xviii. p. 817. § Elliot, Mon. Phas. pt. i. pi. 6. 

|| Phasianus crawfurdii (?), Gray, ? ; Gould, B. As. pt. xi.pl. 4; Elliot, Mon. Phas. 
pt. i. pi. 12. 

U Thaumalea amherstice, Gould, B. As. pt. xviii. pi. 7 ; Elliot, Mon. Phas. pt. ii. pi. 10. 



150 



Birds of Burma. 



Osbeek, T. perlatus, Gmelin), but less robust, haying the bill and feet more 
slender. In Hainan the species is described as identical with that of South 
China. Sir. E. H. Schomburgk's F. f ictus from Siam is doubtless the 
present species. 

[Thayet Myo, Karen nee (W. B.). The slight differences between the 
Burman and Chinese races of this Erancolin, relied on by Mr. Blyth, seem 
hardly sufficient to constitute a separate species. A comparison made between 
numerous examples from Burma and China disinclines me to concur in Mr. 
Blyth' s opinion.] 

533. Aeboeicola kueigulabis (J. 825). 

This species of Peura Partridge, which inhabits the South-East Hima- 
laya, at a lower altitude than A. torqueola, was obtained by Colonel Tickell 
in the mountainous interior of the Tenasserim provinces, at elevations of from 
3000 to 5000 feet. 

^534. A. IISTTEEMEDIA. 
A. intermedia, nobis, J. A. S. B. xxiv. p. 277. 

I failed to discriminate these two races, until I had received numerous 
living examples of A. atrigularis from Sylhet, when I remarked the difference 
of A. intermedia, which I have reason to suspect was received from Arakan. 
There is a specimen of the latter in the British Museum, habitat unknown. 
(Since the above was written, Mr. W. T. Blanford has obtained A. intermedia 
from Arakan.) 

535. A. BETJKJSTEIPECTUS. 

A. brunneipectus, Tickell, J. A. S. B. xxiv. p. 276. 
Tenasserim mountains, from 3000 to 5000 feet {Tickell). 
[Tonghoo and Karen hills (W. JR.).'] 

536. A. CHLOKOPUS. 

A. chloropus, Tickell, J. A. S. B. xxviii. pp. 415, 453. 

" Tolerably numerous ; but as far as my observations go, is entirely con- 
fined to the forests on the banks of the Zummee river. Unlike its known 
congeners, it avoids mountains, and inhabits low though not humid jungles, 
where the ground merely undulates or rises into hillocks. Early in the 
morning these birds come out on the pathway, scratching about in the 
elephants' dung, and turning over the dead leaves for insects. They do not 
appear to have any crow or call, though during the pairing season this may 
not be the case" (Tickell). This species is nearly allied to A. charltoni 



Memipodes. 151 

(Eyton), A. pijrrhogaster (Reiehenbach) of Province Wellesley, but is 
sufficiently distinguished. 

[Eastern slopes of the Pegu hills (0.).] 

537. Calopeedix ocellata. 

Tetrao ocellatus, Raffles, Tr. L. S. xiii. p. 322; Perdix oculea, Tem.; Hardw. 111. 
Zool. i. pi. 58. 

Obtained by Major Berdniore in Mergui province. Sab. also Province 
Wellesley and Sumatra. 

[Temuiinck's specific title has precedence.] 

538. Eambusicola eytchei. 

Bambusicola fytchei, J. Anderson, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 214, pi. xi. 
Was obtained on the hill-sides of Ponsee, at an elevation of 3000 feet. 

539. EOLLULUS CEISTATUS. 

Columba cristata, Gmelin ; Perdix coronata, Latham. 

Valley of the Tenasserim river, Siam, Malayan peninsula, Sumatra, and 
Borneo. "More common about Malacca than in the Wellesley Province and 
in Tenasserim" (Stolic%lcd). 

[Must stand as Rollulus roulroul.~] 

*540. Cotuenix communis (J. 829). 
Arakan, Martaban. 
[Karen nee (W. i2.).] 

541. C. COKOMAl^DELICUS (J. 830). 

Common in Upper Burma. 

542. ExCALEACTOBIA CHINElSrSIS (J. 831). 
Tetrao chinensis, Lin. ; Gould, B. As. pt. x. pi. 12. 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Malayan peninsula and islands. 

Fam. Turnicidse. 

Hemipodes. 

543. Ttteotx blakeoedi. 

Turnix blanfordi, nobis, J. A. S. B. xxxii. p. 80; Hemipodius maculosus, Tem. (?); 
Turnix niaculatus, Vieillot, Gal. des Oiseaux, t. 217. 
Arakan, Pegu.* 

[Tonghoo, Karen nee (W.R.)\ Kollidoo (D.). Not to be separated from 
Shanghai and Chefoo examples.] 

* vide Swinhoe, in P. Z. S. 1871, p. 402. 



m 



152 



Birds of Burma. 



544. T. plumeipes (ef. 833). 

T. plunibipes, Hodgson, Beng. Sport. Mag. 1837, p. 345. 
Tenasserim specimens are quite similar to those from Nipal. 
[Thayet Myo, Karen nee, Tonghoo {W. JR.). Not separable from 
Malaccan examples ; but differing somewhat from Javan T. pugnax.~\ 

Order GKALLATOBES. 

Waders. 

N.B. — Bustards are foreign to the Indo-Chinese countries, but a straggler of the Likh 
Florikim (Sypheotides aurita) is recorded to have been shot at Sandoway, Arakan 
(Bengal Sport. Mag. 1835, p. 151). 



Tribe LIMICOL^E (Plovers and Snipes). 
Fam. Charadriadse. 

Plovers. 

*'545. Aesacus eectjevieosteis (J. 858). 
Common along the banks of rivers. 
[Kyasoo creek {W. B.).~] 

546. Oedicnemtis ceepitai^s (J. 859). 
Yenan-khyoung (W. IT. Blanford). 

547. C:elettusia cineeea (J. 854). 
Bassein, China and Japan.* 

[Tonghoo {W. R.)\ Ye (D.). As Professor Schlegel (I. c.) gives Mr. 
Blyth's title precedence, it may be accepted for the present. Further inves- 
tigation may, however, show that Temminck and Schlegel's title was published 
at an earlier date. The Report in which Mr. Elyth first described C. cinerea 
was for March, 1842, but was only actually published with the Proceedings 
of the A. S. B. for June, 1842.] 

*548. SaECOGEAMMA ATEHSTUCHALIS. 

Sarcogramma alronuchalis, nobis, J. A. S. B. xxxi. p. 345, note. 
Common from Arakan to Malacca. It has much more black on the nape 
than the Indian race, margined with white below, more or less developed. 
[Yey-tho, Thayet Myo, Tonghoo, Karen nee (W. JR.).'] 

* H. Schlegel, Mus. des Pays-Bas, Cursores, p. 69. 



Plovers. 



153 



549. Saeciophokus bilobfs (J. 856). 
Thayet-Myo. 

[Boddaert's specific title, malalaricus, has priority, as a glance at PL 
Enl. 880 will show.] 

*550. HOPLOPTEEUS VEKTRALIS (J. 857). 

Common along the banks of rivers. Mr. Swinhoe met with it in Hainan 
[Tonghoo, Karen nee (W. J2.).] 

*551. Squatarola helvetica (J. 844). 

Arakan. 

[Tonghoo ( W. i?.).] 

*'552. Chaeadeifs eulytjs (J. 845). 
Common in the cold season. 
[Thayet Myo, Tonghoo ( W. J2.)-] 

553. JEgialites placida. 
JEgialiies placidus, G. E. Gray, Cat. Hodgs. Coll. 2nd ed. p. 70, 1863 ; A. hartingi, 
Swinhoe ; JEudromias tenuirostris, A. 0. Hume, probably Charadrius longipes, apud David, 
N. Arch, de Mus. 1867, p. 38. 

A specimen of this bird was believed by Dr. Jerdon to have been pro- 
cured by him in Burma, but he was not sure whether he obtained it on the 
coast or inland. 

*554. M. mo^golica (J. 847). 
Common in the cold season. 

*555. M. dubia (J. 849). 
Charadrius dubius, Scopoli, Del. PI. Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 92. 

Smaller than the European JE. curomcus, but otherwise similar, and of 
common occurrence.*' 

[2E. philippensis, apud Jerd., No. 849, and which is the number in Mr. 
Blyth's MS., is=C. curonicus, Gm. But perhaps the species actually in- 
tended by Mr. Blyth is JE. minuta (Pallas), apud Jerdon, No. 850, and of 
which Lieutenant W. Eamsay obtained specimens at Tonghoo. The title 0. 
philippensis, Lath., was founded on the same plate as that of C. duhius, Scopoli. 
Until the species which inhabits the island of Luzon has been studied, the 
correct titles for the two species cannot be determined. The synonymy is 
very simple, but the correct application of the various titles cannot be made 
until the Philippine type has been compared.] 

* For notice oiJE.philippensis, commonly referred to the same, vide Ibis for 1867, p. 164 . 



154 



Birds of Burma. 



[556. M. cueokicus (J. 849). 
Bangoon (W. B.).~] 

*557. M. alexakdeinijs (J, 848), 
C. alexandrinus, Lin. 
Arakan. 
[Tonghoo ( W. H.).] 



Fam. H86matopodid8D. 

*558. Steepsilas inteepees (J. 860). 
Arakan. 

559. H^EMATOPTTS OSTEALEGUS (J. 862). 

Arakan ; China and Japan {II. Schlegel). 

Fam. GlareolidaD 

Pratincoles. 

"^560. Glaeeola OEIE1STTALIS (J. 842). 
Arakan, Pegu. 
[Tonghoo {W. JZ.)-] 

*561. G. lactea (J. 843). 

Arakan, Pegu, Tenasserim. Dr. Jerdon found this species breeding at 
Thayet Myo, with the young just flown in May. 

[Tonghoo {W. i2.).] 

i 

Fam. Recurvirostrid.83. 



*562. HlMAlSTTOPUS AUTUMN ALIS (J. 898). 

Arakan. H. leucocephalus* will doubtless be met with.f 
The Stilt-plovers of the Old "World have bright rose-coloured legs, and 
ruby-red irides ; while those of America (JT. nigricollis) have very much paler 
pinkish legs and dark irides ; diversities which are not seen in the dry skins. 
[Karen hills {W. jR.).] 

* Gould, Birds of Australia, vol. vi. pi. 24. 

t ef. Ibis, 1865, p. 35, 1867, p. 169 ; J. A. S. B. xli. pt. 2, p. 253. 



Snipes, etc. 155 

Fam. Scolopacidse. 

Snipes, etc. 

*563. Totanus GLOTTIS (J. 894). 

Arakan. 

[Upper Pegu (0.).] 

*564. T. stagnatilis (J. 895). 
Arakan, Tenasserim. 
[Upper Pegu (0.).] 

*565. T. calideis (J. 897). 

Arakan. 

[Karen nee (W-. .#.).] 

*566. ACTITIS GLAEEOLA (J. 891). 

Arakan. 

[Tonghoo, Karen nee (W. R-)-~\ 

*567. A. ocheoptts (J. 892). 

Arakan. 

[Upper Pegu (0.).] 

*568. A. hypoleuctjs (J. 893). 
Arakan, Tenasserim. 
[Tonghoo (W.JR.).'] 

*569. Xentts cineeetjs (J. 876). 
Arakan, Tenasserim.* 

*570. LlMOSA JEGOCEPHALA (J. 875). 

Arakan. 

*571. JSTuMENIUS LINEATTTS (J. 877). 

Numenius lineatus, Cuvier, R. An. 2nd ed. i. p. 521 ; Lesson, Tr. d'Orn. p. 565 ; N. 
major, Fauna Japonica, Aves, pi. 66. 

Arakan. 

[Kyasoo creek (W. R.). Mr. Myth has always maintained that the 
Indian differed from the European Curlew.] 

*572. N. PHiEOPTis (J. 878). 

Arakan, Tenasserim, Andamans, and Mcobars. 

[Thayet Myo (F.).'] 

* cf. Ibis, 1873, p. 68. 







156 



Birds of Burma. 



*573. Teinga sttbaeqtiata (J. 882). 
Arakan, Tenasserim. 

*574. T. PLATYRHY^CHA (J. 886). 

T. platyrhyncha, Tern. ; Gray and Mitchell, Gen. Birds, pi. 157, fig. 2. 
Arakan. 

*575. T. saliva (J. 884). 
T. satinet, Pallas ; T. damacensis, Horsfield ; T. subminuta, Middendorff, 

Arakan, Tenasserim. 

[Rangoon, Tonghoo (W. R.). "While T. damacensis, Horsf., remains 
unidentified, it will be best to adopt Middendorff' s title of subminuta for this 
species. Mr. Swinhoe identifies T. salina, Pallas, with T. albescens, Tern., a 
species which has a red neck and throat in spring. For it, T. ruficollis is the 
oldest title.] 

<*576. T. temminckii (J. 885). 

Arakan. 

[Tonghoo (7F. R.).~] 

577. Eueykoehynchus pygiomis (J. 887). 

E. pygmcea (Lin.), Gray and Mitchell, Gen. Birds, pi. 157, fig. 1 ; Gould, B. As. pt. xxi. 
pi. 13 ; Ibis, 1869, pi. xii. 

Estuaries of rivers, on extensive mud-banks left by the tide. 

*578. Philomachus ptignax (J. 880). 

Arakan. 

[Moerhing's generic title cannot be used, and as Leach gave no generic 
characters, and was not substituting a title, Pavomella must fall, and 
Machetes, Cuv., be adopted.] 

579. Galliistago scolopacina (J. 871). 
Common in Upper Burma. 
[Tonghoo (W. R.) ; Pabyouk (D.).] 

*580. G. stexuea (J. 870). 

The most common snipe of the Indo-Chinese and Malayan countries. 

[_Scolopax stenura, Kuhl, MS. ; S. sthenura, Bp., An. St. Nat. 1829 ; S. 
horsfieldii, J. E. Gray, Zool. Misc. 1831, p. 2. Mr. G. E. Gray (H. L. No. 
10344) most unaccountably gives Dr. Gray's title the precedence.] 



Jacayias, Cranes. 



157 



[581. G. GALLINTJLA (J. 872). 

Upper Pegu (0.).] 

[582. Scolopax eusticola. (J. 867). 

An example of this Woodcock was shot at Moulmein by Colonel D. 
Brown a few years since {fide Hume, Str. Feath. ii. p. 482).] 

*583. Ehykchea betoalestsis (J. 873). 
Arakan, Tenasserim. 
[Kangoon, Yey-tho {W. JR.).] 

Fam. Parrid89. 

Jacanas. 

^584. Metopidius ikdictjs (J. 900). 
Arakan, Tenasserim. 
[Tonghoo (W. It.).] 

*585. HYDEOPHASIAlSrUS SI^EKSIS (J. 901). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. 

[Tonghoo ( W. JR.). Must stand M. chirurgus (Scop.), unless on com- 
parison the Philippine bird be found to differ.] 

Fam. Gruidsa. 

Cranes. 

586. Gnus antigoke (J. 863). 
Kyo-gya. 

Arakan and Pegu. Very numerous in the interior in large flocks. 
According to Lieut. Beavan, it breeds in Burma.* Cantor procured it in 
Province Wellesley, and it is common in Siam. 

587. G. lokgikosteis (J. 865). 

G. longirostris, Tern., Fauna Japonica, Ayes, pi. lxxii. ; G. cinerea, of Indian authors ; 
of. Ibis, 1873, p. 81. 

Included by Mason, and was observed by Mr. Swinhoe in Hainan. 

* P. Z. S. 1867, p. 762. 



*j 



158 



I 



Birds of Burma. 

Fam. Ibididae. 

Ibises. 

*588. Palcinellus igkeus (J. 943). 
Arakan. 

^589. Geeooticus papillosus (J. 942). 
Arakan. 

^590. Ibis melaistocephalus (J. 941). 
Kula-gowJc. 
Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam. 



Fam. Ciconiidae. 



Storks. 

*591. Tantalus leucocephaltts (J. 938). 
Arakan, Tenasserim. Common. 
[Tonghoo (W. R. in epist.).~] 

^592. Akastomus osciTAisrs (J. 940). 
Kha-ru-tsoke. 
Arakan. 

*'593. Xenoehyjstchus austealis (J. 917). 
Arakan, Tenasserim. 

[The Asiatic Jabiru, even if it be identical with the Australian, must 
take the title of asiatica, Lath,] 

*594. Ciconia episcoptts (J. 920). 

Ciconia tnicroscelis, Gray and Mitchell, Gen. Birds, pi. 151. Khyee-khmg-t&wop. 
Arakan, Tenasserim, Malayan countries. 
[Upper Pegu (0.).] 

595. C. alba (J. 919). 
Included by Mason. 

596. Leptoptilus aegala (J. 915). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. Breeds on trees on the limestone mountains. 
[Tonghoo (W. R. in epist.). Although long ago shown by Professor 
Schlegel (Mus. P.-Bas, Ardeae) that, under the title of Ardea dubia, Gmelin 



Herons. 



159 



had confounded three distinct species, namely the two Indian and the African, 
Mr. G. E. Gray (H. L. No. 10195) adopted Gmelin's title for the larger 
Adjutant of India. It is even doubtful whether Latham's title of argala 
may in strictness be employed. If it be rejected, an unexceptionable title, 
Professor Alfred Newton suggests, is available in A. gigantea, E. Forster 
(1795, Faun. Ind. p. 11), and the adoption of which would avoid the 
necessity of using Temminck's most objectionable title of maraou.~\ 

*597. L. javanica (J. 916). 
Dung-tsat and Nghet-gyee. 
Arakan, Tenasserim, Hainan. 

Fam. Ard.eid.ee. 

Herons. 

*598. Aedea sumateana (J. 922). 
Ardea sumatrana, Raffles ; Gould, B. Austr. vol. vi. pi. 54. 
Arakan, Tenasserim, Malacca, Sumatra, and Australia. 

*599. A. cineeea (J. 923). 
Generally diffused. 

*600. A. piieptteea (J. 924). 
Khyung byaing. 
Generally diffused. 

*601. Heeodias alba (J. 925). 

Arakan. 

[Of. Swinhoe, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 412, F. modesta.~] 

*602. H. inteemedia (J. 926). 
Ardea intermedia, Wagler ; Fauna Japonica, Aves, pi. 69 ; Gould, B. Austr. vol. vi. 
pi. 57. 

Frequents open places about the town of Eangoon. Obtained at Ehamo. 

*603. H. gaezetta (J. 927). 
Common in the interior. 

604. H. eulophotes. 
27". eulophotes, Swinhoe, Ibis, 1860, p. 44; Gould, B. Austr. vol. vi. pi. — . 
Obtained by Major Berdmore at Mergui. 



-J 



I 



160 Birds of Burma. 

605. H. concoloe. 
JDemiegretta coneolor, nobis, J. A. S. B. xv. p. 372. 
Arakan (Ramri), Andaman and Mcobar Islands.* 

*606. Bfphus coeomandtis (J. 929). 
Arakan. 

*607. Aedeola geayi (J. 930). 

Arakan. 

[Karen nee [W. 22.).] 

[608. A. PEASINOSCELES. 
A. prasinosceles, Swinhoe, Ibis, I860, p. 64. 

Examples obtained by Mr. Davison at Tavoy and Ye-boo, are thus 
identified by Mr. Hume (Str. Feath, ii. p. 483).] 

*609. BlJTOEIDES JAYANICFS (J. 931). 

Common. 

[Tonghoo, Rangoon (W. 22.).] 

*610. Aedetta elayicollis (J. 932). 

Common. 

[Tonghoo, Rangoon (W. 22.).] 

*611. A. ciisnsrAMOMEA (J. 933). 

Common. 

[Rangoon, Tonghoo (W. 22.).] 

*612. A. sinensis (J. 934). 

Common. 

[Tonghoo (W. 22.).] 

*613. GoESACHITJS MELANOLOPHT7S. 
Ardea melanolopha, Eaffles, Tr. L. S. xiii. p. 326. 
Specimen obtained in Ramri by Major J. R. Abbott. 



* Ardea jugularis, Forster, is given by Herr v. Pelzeln from the Nicobars, in addition 
to A. coneolor. 

[The specific title of sacra, Gm., supersedes that of coneolor, Blyth (cf. Walden, Ibis, 
1873, p. 318). A. jugularisy Forster, is synonymous.] 



Hails, Coots, etc. 

*614. Nycticoeax geisetts (J. 937). 
Arakan, Bhamo. 
[Rangoon (JF. i?.).] 



161 



Fam. Ballidee. 



Rails, Coots, etc. 
^615. PoEPHYEIO POLIOCEPHALTIS (J. 902). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. P. smaragdinotis is given from Siam.^ 
[Tonghoo (TT. JR.). Latham's description agrees well with the common 
Indian purple Coot* He says nothing about a brown back, and that the 
whole head, neck, and lower parts are unicolorous pale lavender-blue, as 
stated by Mr. Hume (Str. Peath. iii. p. 185). Latham describes the bird as 
having the back purple; the head and neck, blue-grey, growing to azure 
towards the chin; breast and belly verditer green (Suppl. ii. p. 375).] 

*616. Galliceex ceistatus (J. 904). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. 

[Upper Pegu (0.). Must stand G. cinereus (Gm.).] 

*6l7. PoEZAKA PHCEMCUEA (J. 907). 

Rallus phcenicurus. Forster; Gould, B. As. pt. xxiv. pi. 12. 
Arakan, Tenasserim, Siam. Common. 
[Tonghoo (JT. JR.) .] 

*618. P. MAEIJETTA (J. 909). 

Arakan. 

*619. P. PYGMiEA (J. 910). 
Common. 

*620. P. fusca (J. 911). 
Common. 

*621. Hypotjsnidia steiata (J. 913). 

Common. 

[Rangoon (JF". JR.).~] 

* Ibis, 1864, p. 246, note. 

[P. smaragdinus, Tern. P. C. 421 = P. indicus, Horsf., and not the African P. smaragno- 
tus, Tem.^Gallinula madagascariensis, Lath., is the species alluded to.] 

11 



162 



Birds of Burma. 






[622. Eallina ceylonica (J. 912). 
Thayet Myo (O.).] 

[623. E. EASCIATA. 
Mattusfasciatus, Raffles, Tr. L. S. xiii. p. 328. 
Amherst (D.).] 

*624. Eallus indictjs (J. 914). 
R. japonicus, Schlegel. 
Arakan. 

*625. Gallinula chloeoptjs (J. 905), 

Arakan. 

[Upper Pegu (0.).] 

*626. Fulica ATEA (J. 903). 
Arakan. 

*627. PoDICA PEESONATA. 
Podica personata, G. R. Gray, P. Z. S. 1848, 90, Aves, pi. 4; Gen. Birds, pi. 173. 

Cachar, Tenasserim provinces, Malacca. 

" These very rare birds in Tenasserim," remarks Col. Tickell, "are met 
with in shady deep narrow streams in forests, whether in the tideway or 
remotely inland. They swim rapidly, but seldom dive ; and although emi- 
nently aquatic in conformation, resort, strange to say, for safety to land. 
Scrambling up the steep banks when shot at, and running with unexpected 
rapidity into dense thickets, its flight is like that of the Coot, or Water-hen, 
squattering along the surface of the water." * 

Fam. Laridse. 

Gulls. 

628. Laetjs icthtaetfs (J. 979). 
Eamri. 

*629. Xema beunneicephala (J. 980). 
Chroicocephalus tibetanus, Gould. Mason also includes X. ridibunda. 
Arakan. 



* Tickell, J. A. S. B. xxviii. p. 455. 



Term. 



163 



630. Lesteis POMATOKHOTTJS. 

An example in mature plumage procured by Colonel Tickell near Moul- 
mein.* 4 



Fam. Sternidae. 

Terns. 

*631. Gelochelidost aitolica (J. 983). 
Arakan. 

*632. Hybeochelidon ikdica (J. 984). 
Arakan, Tenasserim. 

633. Thalasseus ceistatus (J. 989). 
Sterna bergii, Licht. ; 8. velox, Euppell. 

Tenasserim coast. 

634. Th. medius (J. 990). 

Sterna media, Horsfield ; S. affinis^ Euppell ; 8. bengalensis, Lesson ; S. torresii, Gould. 
Arakan, Tenasserim. 

*635. Seeka axjeaktia (J. 985). 

A common river Tern. 

[Tonghoo, Sittang river {W. 22.)-] 

*636.. Sterna melanogasxka (J. 987). 

Sterna melanogastra. Tern. ; Gould, B e As. pt. x. pi. 16. 

A common river Tern. 

Of maritime Terns which must needs occur on the coast may be men- 
tioned Onychoprion melanauchen (Tern.), P.O. 427, which breeds plentifully in 
the Nicobars; O.panaya, Anous stotidus, and A. tenuirostris.] 

On the coast must also necessarily occur Phaeton cethereus, Sula filer, and 
probably Fregata. 

[Tonghoo {W. JR.). Horsfield's title, javanica, has priority.] 

[637. S. mi^uta (J. 988). 
Tonghoo (JT. J2.)-] 

[638. S. ? 

Irrawady river (W. JR.). I have not as yet been able to identify this 
species.] 

.* J. A. S. B. xxviii. p. 416. t of. Ibis, 1867, p. 178. 



164 



Birds of Burma. 

639. Ehtnchops albicollis (J. 995). 

Not rare. Frequently seen on the Tavoy river, according to Mason. 
[Tonghoo ( W. JR.).'] 

Order NATATOKES. 
Tribe TOTIPALMAT^E. 

Fam. Pelecanidee. 

Pelicans. 

640. Pelecantts javantctjs. 
Common. 

[Jerdon's number is left blank in MS.] 

*641 P. PHILIPPINENSIS. 

P. philippinensis, Gm. ; Ann. M. N. H. xiv. p. 122; J. A. S. B. xviii. p. 821. 
Common. 
[Jerdon's number is left blank in MS.] 






Fam. Graculid.se. 



Cormorants. 

642. Gbacttlus caebo (J. 1005). 

Obtained by Colonel Briggs at Tavoy, * and common in Upper Burma. 
Pinlayson probably means this Cormorant when he mentions having 
procured "a fine species of black Pelican" in the Gulf of Siam. 
[Tonghoo (JT. JR.).] 

643. G. euscicollis (J. 1006). 
Phalacrocorax sulcirostris, Brandt. 

Bhamo, Mouloung lake (J. Anderson). 

644. G. PYGMiEus (J. 1007). 

Ten-gyie. 
Common. 
[Tonghoo, Sittang river {W. JR.).] 

* P. Z. S. 1859, p. 150. 



Barters. 



165 



Fam. Plotidsa. 

Darters. 

^645. Plotus melakogastee (J. 1008). 
Ten-gyie. 

Arakan, Tenassenm. Enormous flocks near Mengoon (J. Anderson). 
The alleged Australian species (P. novcehollandm, Gould) differs in no respect. 
[Tonghoo (JT. £.).] 

Tribe LAMELLIROSTEES. 

Fam. Anatidse. 

^646. Saecidioeistis melastonotus (J. 950). 

TaU'Won-bai. 

Common. 

[Tonghoo (W.R.).-] 

*647. DElSTDEOCYGlSrA AECTTATA (J. 952). 

Common. D. major is also included by Mason. 
[Tonghoo (JT. -£.)•] 

*648. Casaeca eutila (J. 954). 
Arakan, Bhamo. 

649. C. leucopteea (J. 955). 

Inhabits the valleys of the great rivers, from the Megna at least to the 
Tenasserim. The Anas scutulata, S. Miiller, seems to be a domesticated, if 
not hybrid, variety of this species, and the examples of it in the British and 
Leyden Museums have much intermixture of white in the plumage. 

*650. Xettopus coeomandeliakus (J. 951). 
Karagat. 
Common. 
[Tonghoo (JT. JZ.).] 

*651. A^as pceciloehy^cha (J. 959). 
Arakan, Bhamo, Tenasserim. 

*652. A. CAEYOPHYLLACEA (J. 960). 

A. caryophyllacea, Latham ; Gray and Mitchell, Gen. Birds, pi. 168. 
Arakan, Bhamo. 




166 



Birds of Burma. 






*653. A. steepeea (J. 961). 
Arakan. 

*654. A. acuta (J. 962). 
Arakan. 

*655. A. ciecia (J. 965). 

Arakan, Tenasserim. Has been known to breed near Moulmein. 

[Tonghoo {W. #.).] 

*656. A. ceecca (J. 964). 

Arakan, common at Bhaino, Hainan. 

*657. A. penelope (J. 963). 
Arakan, Hainan.* 

*658. FUTJGHJLA NYEOCA (J. 969). 

Arakan. 

659. Beanta eueina (J. 967). 

Bhamo. 

[If employed, Branta should be written Brenthus. But as the type of 
Scopoli's genus (Ann. I. Hist. Nat. p. 67) is A. lernicla, Lin., A. rufina can- 
not well be included under it.] 



Tribe (?) 

Fam. Podicipidse. 

Grebes. 

*660. Podiceps PHILIPPENSIS (J. 975). 

Arakan. 

[Tonghoo (W.R.).-\ 



* A. punctata {Anas punctata, Cut., Gould, B. Austr. vii. pi. 11 ; Querquerdula 
andamanensis ? Tytler) inhabits the Andaman Islands (Ball, J. A. S. B. xli. pt. ii. p. 290). 
[Not A. punctata, Cuv., but M. gibberifrons, S. Miiller=lT. albogularis, Hume.] 



Birds of Burma. 



167 



[From the total number of birds known to inhabit Burma, 660, as noted 
in the foregoing list, four must be deducted. Kamely : 

1. Palmornis melanorhynchuSj apud Blyth. 

2. Teraspizias rhodogastra. 

3. Micropternus hurmannicus=lf£. rufinotus. 

4. Pellomeum minor— P. ticlcelli. 

The next seven species may have been confounded with species also 
enumerated : 

5. Caprimulgus indicus with C.jotaha. 

6. Cypselus batassiensis with C. infumalus. 

7. Siumia malabarica with S. nemoricola. 

8. Brachyurus megarhynchus with B. moluccensis. 

9. Cryptolopha hurlcii with C. tephrocephalus . 

10. Orihotomus edela with O.flavi-viridis. 

1 1 . Macropygia ruficeps with M. assimilis. 

And the total may have to be still further reduced by three more species, 
namely : 

12. Sturnia sinensis, its occurrence not resting on good evidence. 

13. Machlolophus suhviridis, apparently M. spilonotus, juv. 

14. Braehypodius cinereiventris, perhaps a variety only of B. melano- 

cephalus. 
The following four species, not separately enumerated, may have to be 
added : 

1. Megalcema virens, in addition to M. marshallorum. 

2. Kemixus hildebrandi, in addition to H. flavala. 

3. Criniger griseiceps, in addition to C.flaveolus. 

4. Osmotreron vernans. 

Further investigations will doubtless make known a great many more 
forms belonging to either Himalayan or Malayan genera.] — Waldest. 



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